Post-immigration 'difference' and integration: the case of Muslims in Western Europe

by Professor Tariq Modood FBA

Number of pages


Twenty-first century Europe is home to a mixture of ethnicities, religions and cultures. Alongside this diversity is a fear of and hostility towards immigrants – to Muslims in particular – and an unresolved debate on how and to what extent the individuals and groups in question should integrate within society.

Here Tariq Modood FBA presents four different options for integration and equality of opportunity for all citizens. Some ethnic minorities may wish to assimilate; some to have the equal rights of integrated citizens; some to maintain the cultural differences of their group identities; and some to be free to choose cosmopolitan mixed identities.

Professor Modood argues that all of these approaches have value, and if citizens are to have not just rights but a sense of belonging to society the government should not seek to impose one particular option. No one approach fits all and none should be dismissed. 

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