Funding source: Newton Fund, under the responsibility of the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS).
The Newton Fund was launched in 2014 and originally consisted of £75 million each year for five years. In the 2015 UK Spending Review, it was agreed to extend and expand the Fund. The Newton Fund was extended from 2019 to 2021 and expanded by doubling the £75 million investment to £150 million by 2021, leading to a £735 million UK investment to 2021, with partner countries providing matched resources within the Fund. These awards are funded by the Newton Fund, which is part of the UK's Official Development Assistance (ODA) commitment.
Dr Maria Paula Prates - Brazil
Health policies and sociocultural diversity: a comparative study on childbirth service
NF170782 City University £99,000.00
This proposed research project will link the field of anthropology with that of health sciences. The general objective is to understand the relationship between medical teams in maternity services and people (patients) with a non-western cosmology. The project will illuminate this issue through cross-cultural comparison. In the Brazilian context the focus is on the encounters of indigenous women with health services, while in the UK the focus will be on those of refugees and recent immigrants. A same question will constitute the background of these two studies: how public health policies can account for the cultural diversity in a way that provide adequate care without disrespecting other world logics? The Brazilian part of the research will essentially consist in data analysis of an almost already completed fieldwork, while the UK part will give rise to rapid ethnographic case studies, supplemented by bibliographic and documentary data.
Dr Nathalie Leister - Brazil
Cultural and social influences on the choice of birthplace: a qualitative cross-cultural comparison
NF170740 City University £80,152.50
In England since 1990, women´s choice in maternity care has been promoted. However, most health services still offer Midwifery Units (MU) and home birth as alternative rather than mainstream birth settings. Following evidence on the positive outcomes of MUs, the NICE Intrapartum Care for Healthy Women and Babies clinical guideline was updated to recommend that professionals should inform women of the benefits in planning their births outside the hospital setting. However, rates of birth outside hospital units remain low. It is necessary to understand why and how women choose where to give birth in order to restructure how information on birth places is provided and presented, in order to support informed choice. The aim of the study is to understand the influences on women choosing a MU birth. The use of qualitative cross-cultural comparison will illuminate the role of sociocultural influences, including those on professionals and pregnant women, in how birthplace choices are made.
Dr Aidan Mosselson – South Africa
Migrant Infrastructures: experiences of life and work on the peripheries of British cities
NF170454 University of Sheffield £99,000.00
Combining insights from migration studies, comparative urbanism and post-colonial critique, the research focuses on the lived realities of life and work on the peripheries of British cities. Utilising a combination of solicited diaries, ethnographic observation and in-depth interviews, the project will present detailed accounts of migrants’ experiences working in the security, cleaning and transport industries, and demonstrate the crucial contributions they make to sustaining the infrastructures which maintain urban life. The research foregrounds the lived experiences of people on urban peripheries, and illuminates the ways in which migrants experience, navigate and adapt to different cities and construct networks of support and stability. The research adds critical perspectives on issues of race, prejudice and power to scholarship about urban infrastructure and marginality and emphasises how enduring colonial legacies are pivotal to making and maintaining British cities.
Funding Source: Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) Core and Core +.
Dr Teresa Fernandez- Crespo - Spain
Identity, social inequality and violence in Late Neolithic/ Early Chalcolithic southwest Europe
NF170854 University of Oxford £99,000.00
The origins of human conflict lie not in historical documents but in the prehistoric archaeological record. While some evidence is ambiguous, injuries to the skeleton are not. Late Neolithic and Early Chalcolithic (3500-2500 BC) graves of the Ebro (Spain) and Rhône (France) valleys contain skeletons with arrowhead and cranial injuries, potentially massacres involving many individuals. Emerging evidence suggests the existence of specialised warriors – potentially the first such in Europe. This project proposes an unprecedented interdisciplinary approach to explore the identity and life-histories of those involved in the violence observed in this pivotal period, and the impact of inequalities and/or population movements on its genesis. A combination of analytical methods will be used to this end, including the re-examination of skeletal collections, stable carbon and nitrogen analysis of bone collagen and tooth dentine, strontium and oxygen analysis of tooth enamel and radiocarbon dating.
Dr Dyutiman Mukhopadhyay - India
CEE-through-Film: a neurobehavioural paradigm to test culture-appraisal-interaction model of emotion
NF170643 University College London £99,000.00
The 'culture-appraisal-interaction' model of emotion reactivity proposed in this project combines the social appraisal theories of emotions and cultural models of self to state that the dynamics of social appraisal might have a cultural context embedded within it. To test this model, we devised a new behavioural and fMRI-based experimental paradigm titled: 'Cross-cultural Emotion Elicitation through Film (CEE-through-Film)'. This paradigm consists of clips of films and whole films that maintain the natural complexity of emotion. In these clips, we vary four constituent elements: acting-style, cultural context, narrative context and emotional cues. Our overarching goal in this project is to investigate through the CEE-through-Film paradigm, how social appraisal might be guided by cultural contexts with the prospect of using the paradigm as a future screening method for specific emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) across cultures.
Dr Johanna Schnabel - Germany
An Instrument of Centralisation? Exploring the Politics of Conditional Grants in Federal States
NF170011 University of Kent £89,016.00
The aim of this project is to scrutinise whether the use of conditional grants in funding welfare policies in federal states does lead to centralisation, as most scholars claim. Centralisation is seen as a problem for federal states because it undermines regional autonomy, the preservation of which is federalism’s fundamental purpose. However, conditional grants may be a useful tool in addressing the so-called ‘devolution paradox’, whereby citizens tend to support regional autonomy but at the same time dislike territorial inequalities. As the politics of conditional grants has not been systematically investigated, we do not know whether they really centralise power in the hands of the federal government. To answer this question, I will examine the genesis, monitoring, and enforcement of programmes funded through conditional grants in Australia, Canada, and the United States. By so doing, I aim to shed light on an important aspect of how federal systems operate.
Dr Veysel Elgin - Turkey
Offering and Demanding Collective Apologies: A UK versus Turkey Comparison
NF170010 University of Kent £99,000.00
Collective apologies are increasingly assumed to be a prerequisite for reconciliation between and within countries, but there is no robust evidence on how they work in different cultural contexts. This project will examine how different cultures use and judge the issuing and demanding of collective apologies. In our cultural psychological framework, members of honour cultures (Turkey) should evaluate apologies and demands for apologies differently than members of dignity cultures (UK) because offering apology may signal weakness within honour cultures where admitting a serious mistake, failing to hold an initial position and losing autonomy, that can come with offering apologies, all risk loss of respect. This project comparing data from Turkey and the UK will triangulate archival, correlational and experimental methods to understand how cultural differences in honour endorsement shape perceptions of collective apologies and thus the reconciliation process.
Dr Anna Lampadaridi – Greece
The Life of St Pancras of Taormina
NF171132 University of Oxford £84,640.20
I propose to research and publish the first critical edition of a centrally important text for the history of Byzantine Sicily: the Greek 'Life of Saint Pancras of Taormina', with a full introduction and commentary, and with an English translation. The Life has long been recognized as a crucial text for understanding the contested world of early medieval Sicily, but has never had a proper scholarly edition of the Greek text, let alone a commentary that draws out the many important details that it provides on the political, economic and religious history of the island. During my two-year fellowship I would be working closely with the ERC 'Cult of Saints' project, directed by my co-applicant, Dr Bryan Ward-Perkins, and taking responsibility for inputting into the project's database the Sicilian hagiographical evidence. With him, in the second year of my fellowship, I would organise in Oxford a major conference on early medieval Sicily.
Dr Suzan Meryem Rosita Kalayci - Turkey
Thus Makes us Orphans All. A History of Orphanhood through the Perspective of the Armenian Genocide.
NF170316 University of Oxford £96,144.00
This project focuses on the role of religion in the biographies of war orphans – the Islamisation of Christian children during the Great War and the Armenianisation of Muslim children after the war – by examining the little-known phenomenon of the integration of babies of Muslim fatherhood into the Armenian national community. To explore the broader implications of these events, I want to investigate the role religion played in international rescue efforts for these children. I will examine the extent to which this ‘orphan moment’ was used by nationalist movements and contributed to the shaping of different varieties of internationalism. My project questions what it meant to be an Armenian orphan after the war and asks whether the specific life story of a child orphaned through genocide affected the experience of the child. My research will involve much new archival research ranging from survivor testimonies, eyewitness accounts, visual material, to original interviews.
Dr Guillaume Dezecache - France
The social and emotional dynamics of rioting: new insights from mass participation experiments
NF171514 University College London £99,000.00
Rioting behaviour, a spontaneous and violent group action directed towards another group of individuals, is a relatively common phenomenon in complex societies. Because of its prevalence and destructiveness, it has received a great deal of attention from researchers in the social sciences. Conventional approaches mostly rely on methods such as participants' retrospective verbal reports. Hypotheses relating to the emergence and escalation of riots, therefore, are hard to test experimentally. Here, we would like to take advantage of the development of a mass participation experiments technology to revisit classical questions in the psychology of riots, in particular: (i) how collective patterns of rioting emerge and escalate; (ii) what are the psychological and social determinants of one's willingness to become a rioter; (iii) how the sense of individual agency can be distorted during rioting compared to other types of collective action.
Dr Michael Facius – Germany
Beyond Edo. Transnational Narratives of the Early Modern in 20th-century Japan
NF171261 University College London £98,400.00
This project explores the diverse narratives and representations of the early modern or Edo period in 20th-century Japan. It transcends the national framework commonly employed in memory studies and centers instead on the transnational circulation of ideas and practices and the multiplicity of spatial configurations they engendered, from the local and regional to the East Asian and global. Together with a new approach to the spaces of the early modern, it also interrogates different notions of temporality embedded in understandings of the period. The project consists of four case studies that cover different societal arenas and sub-periods within the 20th century: academic debates about the period concept kinsei/early modern around 1900; the construction of tourist sites in (post-)colonial Taipei; the public discourse on the concept of ‘national seclusion’ in the post-war decades; and contemporary exhibitions about Chinese intellectuals that emigrated to Japan in the 18th century.
Dr Ozge Ozduzen Atesman - Turkey
NF170302 Loughborough University £81,557.50
This research examines the use of art and media for political expression in the symbolic spaces of the Gezi Protests (May-August 2013) in Istanbul, until the attempted coup (15 July 2016). In particular, it explores activists' re-engagement with media and art in the previously occupied parks in Istanbul, in order to illustrate how art and media can create new urban landscapes and avenues for political voice, even following the protests. In the post-Gezi era, marginalised communities repurposed some of these previously occupied parks in order to express their political identities via participating in political concerts, plays and film screenings, while also tweeting about their experiences using the hashtags of #RememberGezi and #DontForgetGezi. By employing mixed methods of oral history and ethnography with activists as well as content analysis of the popular hashtags, this research aims to capture alternative forms of urban resistance and media/art.
Dr Khadij Gharbi - Iran
Issues of Attrition and Transmission in Heritage Language Development
NF170424 University of Essex £91,875.00
According to Montrul (2008), incomplete acquisition and attrition both account for “language loss across generations” (p. 21). Rothman (2007) argues that these two “are not the only sources of heritage language competence differences” (p. 359), since the input heritage speakers are exposed to has already undergone attrition. This study will aim to bridge this gap and provide evidence for the role of input in heritage language acquisition. To this end, a group of Persian-English heritage speakers and their parents in the UK will be compared to their matched controls in the home country in terms of heritage language proficiency and intragenerational attrition of the ethnic language. A small-scale investigation will be conducted to identify the morphosyntactic features that are vulnerable to attrition in both parents and children. Following that, the development of these feature in the larger sample, will be investigated through a combination of controlled tasks and free spoken data.
Dr Adrian Mihai - Canada
Critical Edition of Ralph Cudworth’s 'The True Intellectual System of the Universe' (1678)
NF170041 University of Cambridge £99,000.00
The project consists in providing the first critical edition of Ralph Cudworth’s treatise, 'The True Intellectual System of the Universe' (1678). Though Cudworth has been recognised in recent years as one of the most important British philosophers of the 17th-century, there is still no critical edition of his masterpiece that meets the standards of modern philology and that is up-to-date with research both in Classical and in Modern European thought (the last edition was published in 1845). Since no extant manuscript exists, this work has placed Cudworth, like Shakespeare, at the mercy of editors and printers. Further motivation for producing this edition concerns Cudworth’s ideas, arguments and problems, many of which are currently the focus of attention in philosophy and theology. I am convinced that through our edition, Cudworth’s perplexing, multifaceted and fertile book will provide a number of links between the Renaissance and the Enlightenment.
Dr Elsa Giovanna Simonetti - Italy
Divination in Plutarch and his age. New perspectives on the Platonic tradition
NF170680 Durham University £83,250.00
My project focuses on the relationship between divination and philosophy in the Platonic reflection of the early imperial age (“Middle Platonism”). My work plan is divided into three sections, each of which analyses divination in relation to a specific conceptual area. These are: A) Greek and Oriental religion and theology; B) scientific models of explanation and knowledge acquisition; C) the practice of philosophical exegesis of authoritative texts. The expected outcomes of this research will be of considerable interest for the study of ancient religion and philosophy. In line with recent scholarly insights, my inquiry will contribute to the revaluation of the Platonic tradition prior to Plotinus and, by placing for the first time due emphasis on the role of divination in this process, will shed light on hitherto neglected aspects of Middle Platonism, while also attempting to give an account of the unprecedented importance of oracles and ritual practices in Neoplatonism.
Dr Djordje Sredanovic - Italy
Values and meanings of citizenship: attitudes and strategies in the wake of Brexit
NF171438 University of Sussex £82,971.00
This research aims to explore the impact of Brexit in terms of attitudes towards, and strategies for, naturalization. Brexit represents a potential loss of formal rights for both UK and EU citizens, and protective naturalization has emerged as a response to this expected loss of rights. I will collect qualitative in-depth interviews with EU citizens in the UK and, as a comparison, with UK citizens in the UK who apply for the citizenship of another country, UK citizens in Belgium and third-country nationals in both countries, in order to understand how the different groups perceive their rights and their potential development after the Brexit referendum, and what are their attitudes towards naturalizing and the meaning and value of citizenship. The research further aims to explore what the case of Brexit can teach us about the value of national and supranational citizenship and about the possibility of a post-national development.
Dr Alessandro Belmonte - Italy
Formation and Persistence of Political Values. Evidence from the Italian Fascist Regime.
NF170218 University of Warwick £98,250.00
This project will investigate the formation and persistence of political values using a famous case of large public investment in the 1930s Italian Fascism, the “bonifica integrale” (drainage) of the Pontine Marshes. The project will use this event and newly digitised data from disparate archival sources to investigate whether municipalities that benefited from this massive investment have persistently been more attached to Fascist political values and were more likely to support Fascist political parties, even after political discontinuities and regime transitions. The aim of the project is to write an article on a state-of-the-art topic in political economy, the formation and persistence of political values, building on my previous research on public economics and political economy and using new quantitative microdata and an original identification design.
Dr Yuliya Hilevych - Ukraine
Infertile Identities: Discourses, Counselling and Activism in Britain, c.1948-1978
NF170487 University of Cambridge £92,400.00
This project focuses on the alternatives to (biological) parenting and reproductive identities emerging in the decades prior to infertility became commercialised through new reproductive technologies. The invention of in-vitro fertilisation in 1978 is often seen as a watershed facilitating the public visibility of a range of reproductive identities: from cross-border reproductive tourist and surrogate mothers, to same-sex parents and desperate childless single women. Little is known about how seemingly different reproductive identities of previous generations, such as adoptive parents, birth mothers, impotent husbands and childless wives, influenced contemporary views on infertility, reproduction and parenthood, as well as on the emergence of adoption and voluntary childlessness as global trends. This project will trace these continuities in the period between c.1948 and 1978, and it takes Britain, a leader in medical research on reproductive medicine, as a social laboratory.
Dr Sarah Bezan - Canada
Animating the Fossil Image: Iconographies of Contingency in Contemporary Film and Art
NF170527 University of Sheffield £89,169.00
Building a bridge between the natural sciences and humanities, I explore how recent visual narratives of evolution dramatically reconfigure the relationship between humans and animals. From Linnaeus to Cuvier, the problem of natural history's greatest scientists and artists is that the human has been stationed as the pinnacle of evolutionary progress, which in turn flattens deep time into a contrived series of successions and reduces species to a set of fixed prototypes. While excellent research in the Environmental Humanities has begun to address animal agency, autonomy, and subjectivity, scholars have not yet interpreted how today's emerging paleoartists are re-inventing the temporal index, disordering classificatory schemes, and discharging the human from its superior station in the story of life. Reading fossil images as an iconography of contingency, I boldly claim that paleoart can recast the story of evolution as an urgent call to action in an era of environmental collapse.
Dr James McElvenny - Australia
Form and formalism in linguistics
NF170676 University of Edinburgh £85,125.00
This project explores the concept of "form" in language and the uses which linguists and other language scholars have made of it since the emergence of linguistics as an institutionalised discipline around the beginning of the 19th century. The project is centred around two main research objectives. The first is to construct a conceptual history of form in language. The second is to investigate the development of formalist approaches to the study of language and their opposites, approaches that seek to identify and account for external motivations of linguistic form, in particular psychological, pragmatic and aesthetic factors. The project is in the first instance a contribution to the history of ideas. While the focus is on the history of linguistics, historical interactions with related fields and the broader intellectual environment will also receive attention. A hermeneutic approach to history guides the methodology of the project.
Dr Ken Wei Sheng Tan - Singapore
NF170633 University of Nottingham £99,000.00
Artificial recognition systems (ARS) are gaining traction but while useful are not as flexible as humans at recognizing shapes under varying conditions. Processes involved in human shape perception are being slowly revealed but an accurate model that captures human flexibility has yet to be built. The aim is to begin to create such a model for global shape/texture processing. This has the potential to not only be a useful template for creating ARS but also in informing clinical conditions with shape processing abnormalities. Wide field display, eyetracking equipment and fMRI will be used to investigate this. The wide field display will be used to investigate the limits of global shape processes across spatial, temporal and size changes. Eyetracking equipment will help identify if particular sequences of critical features are necessary for integration to occur. fMRI will identify where in the hierarchy of brain regions the different processes occur.
Dr Malgorzata Ewa Trzeciak - Poland
Female portraits in Italian and British travellers’ accounts from Poland (1600-1700)
NF170169 University of Cambridge £99,000.00
The project aims to investigate the way women in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth have been portrayed in Italian, English, Scottish and Irish travel diaries from the 17th century. Preference will be given to mostly unpublished manuscripts, travel journals and guide books concerning Poland and the conduct literature for women. There is a tendency to investigate either unilateral migration to Poland (i.e. Italian or Scottish) or women travellers in the 18th century. Yet, 17th-century travel journals by male authors can offer new insights into the representation of women across the entire social spectrum in their everyday context especially when they register cross-cultural encounters in a multicultural society. This project will contribute to a better understanding of the role women played in early modern society by publishing comprehensive studies on the way migrants coming from the North and the South of Europe perceived local female communities.
Dr Paola Andrea Castano Rodriguez - Colombia
A Laboratory with Many Bookkeepers: Scientific Research on the International Space Station
NF171553 Cardiff University £99,000.00
This project investigates how assessments of value about scientific research on the International Space Station operate in terms of their realms, criteria, and understandings of science. The research combines a processual empirical analysis of experiments conducted in this facility (in biomedicine, plant biology, and particle physics) with evaluations of them. On the basis of documentary, ethnographic and interview data, I characterize the process of conducting the experiments; the researchers’ ideas about science and its value; the modalities of epistemic validation and public dissemination of results; and the evaluations to which they are subject. I provide a typification of these evaluations’ settings, goals, domains, references to inherent worth and practical applications, evidence, and the type of expertise of those making them. The broad goal is to outline an analytic framework that identifies possible grounds of adjudication among competing perspectives about scientific value.
Dr Pierre Courroux - France
The Portrayal of Battles in Medieval Chronicles
NF170094 University of Southampton £83,512.50
“Battle studies” are a well-established field, but my project aims to create a new approach in the light of the linguistic turn that social sciences have been witnessing since the 1960s, which considers the creation of truth as a central part of historical discourse. This will be achieved through a comparative investigation of battle narratives in chronicles produced in France, England and Scotland in two key eras: the first, marked by the Anglo-Norman world, begins with the battle of Hastings in 1066 and ends with the battle of Bouvines in 1214. The second concerns the Hundred Years War, from the battle of Crécy in 1346 to the battle of Castillon in 1453. I will look for similarities and differences between countries, languages and eras, which will form the basis of an index of topoi chosen for battle narratives and which will identify insular or “continental features”. The impact of literary genres, especially the use of verse form, will also be studied.
Dr Marie de Rugy - France
Native maps in colonial context (19th century): Cartographic productions in Southeast Asia
NF171196 University of Cambridge £97,950.00
In my PhD dissertation, that I successfully defended on November 16, 2018 at University Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne, I compared the British and the French geographical policies in Burma and Vietnam in the 19th century, studying the institutions and the practices on the ground - technics of mapping but also oral enquiries to local populations and the use of Asian maps by Europeans to draw their own topographical charts. In this connected history, I also analyzed the way they represented borders, ethnic groups, etc., challenging the link between maps and territories. In Southeast Asia I have collected Burmese and Vietnamese maps that deserve mere attention - to translate them and analyse them - and Burmese maps recently rediscovered in the British archives - Cambridge University Library, British Library - are waiting for deeper understanding. The challenge is to take these cartographic documents as historical sources and show that they have something to add to History of Science.
Dr Natalia Korchagina - Russia
‘We are the history’: How LGBT movement organisations use the past to procure transformative change
NF171082 University of Warwick £97,350.00
This project will explore how using history and collective memory enables social movements to enact transformative change, taking the case of the LGBT movement in Rome, Italy, and focusing on its two main organisations. While the idea that history and collective past play important functions for social movements is not new in principle, important knowledge gaps in relation to uses of history by social movements remain that proposed research will address. Specifically, it will disentangle how movement actors perform the past in the present to prefigure futures that are radically different from the past. It will also illuminate how and why practices of using the past change over time and how such changes relate to the movement’s ability to sustain, expand and reorient change. This research will develop implications for theory and practice that concern strategic practices of history and memory use that will be relevant for both movement organising and other types of organisation.
Dr Jessica Werneke – United States
The Golden Age of Amateurism: Amateur Photography and Photography Clubs in the Soviet Union
NF170301 Loughborough University £99,000.00
My research investigates the growth of amateur photography and photography clubs in the Russian Federation and the Soviet Republics after World War II. This interdisciplinary project explores the intersections of social, cultural and political history in the late Soviet period through the lens of amateur photography. I examine how local interpretations of Soviet leisure policies impacted amateur photographers and the development of different photographic genres and styles across the Soviet Union. I explore how regional politics and politicians’ interpretation of productive leisure policies played a decisive role at the grassroots level, in some cases determining how amateur photographers’ work was received. Ultimately, I investigate how the combination of regional politics and “soft” or community censorship contributed to the development of distinct regional styles.
Dr Sarah Baccianti - Switzerland
Scientific Knowledge in Medieval Scandinavia
NF170760 Queen's University Belfast £99,000.00
"Scientific Knowledge in Medieval Scandinavia" (SKIMS) is a study of the transmission and reception of scientific knowledge in the medieval North from the 12th to the 14th centuries, with a particular focus given on texts produced in Iceland and Norway. I will thus study the texts and the manuscripts in which they are reproduced and explore the Scandinavian tradition of scientific writing in time and space, their dissemination and their tradition, comparing them to the ones produced in England from the Anglo-Saxon period to 1200. SKIMS will provide a website of the scientific texts produced in medieval Scandinavia which will be available to both scholars in the field of Old Norse literature and history of science, but also to a general audience. The project's objectives are to present the first transcription and translation into Modern English of scientific texts found in Old Norse manuscripts, and provide the first study on the reception and dissemination of scientific knowledge.
Dr Hita Unnikrishnan - India
Tales from long ago: the lost lakes of Bengaluru and their relevance for modern times
NF171305 University College London £99,000.00
India, a country with a rapidly growing population has struggled with inclusivity and sustainability in governing its natural resources. In Bengaluru, key pieces of community-managed infrastructure, a network of lakes, have transformed into built spaces. This research will identify communities who are historically vulnerable to exclusion from water commons and the impacts of exclusionary governance regimes in producing social-ecological landscapes. Adopting an interdisciplinary methodology combining historical GIS, archival research, and oral history, we aim to identify diversity and political influence of commons users and drivers of landscape change across spatial and temporal scales. These drivers as they have interacted with politically heterogeneous social actors will explain production of the socio-ecological landscape. The research will reveal the historical implications of exclusionary regimes on equity and sustainability and their continued relevance to urban water commons.