British Academy Research Readerships: past awards
Dowding, Professor Keith
Professor of Political Science, London School of Economics (S5)
Amartya Sen and Modern Political Theory
The project reconsiders the anti-utilitarian agenda of modern political philosophy concentrating upon the arguments of Amartya Sen. I argue that 'choice-based accounts of utility' avoid many of the standard criticisms of utilitarianism. I show that standard axioms of rational choice are required for the interpretation of actions developing an externalist critique of 'experiential utility'. I defend the game-form approach to rights using Hohfeld to criticise social-choice accounts. I defend a cardinality approach to freedom (of choice) though choosing is costly hence the largest opportunity set is not maximal. Maximal opportunity sets will be defined by indirect utility. A naturalistic account of utility-generation allows us to accept individual utility as revealed, whilst allowing a critique of the culture under which such choice is made. The approach suggests that some debates in modern political philosophy are otiose. I replace the luck-effort distinction with a luck-power distinction that better captures moral intuitions over equality.
Graham, Dr Elizabeth
Senior Lecturer in the Archaeology of Latin America, University College London (H7; H9)
The Maya Towns of Tipu and Lamanai - Conquest, Conversion and Resistance on the Spanish Colonial Frontier
The research proposed will integrate and synthesise historical information derived from colonial documents with late prehistoric and colonial period archaeological data, both Spanish and British, from two Maya sites in Belize, Central America, where I have directed excavations. During the Spanish encounter with the Maya living in Belize, Guatemala, and the Yucatan Peninsula in the 16th century, Tipu and Lamanai served as both springboards for a campaign of conversion and as centres for the concentration or 'reduction' of Christian converts from surrounding villages and towns. Integration and synthesis of the information from Belize will entail comparisons with better known Contact-period encounters in Mexico, Florida, and the Caribbean. The resulting publication will contribute to literature on the colonisation process by filling a gap in our knowledge of Maya-Spanish interaction, and will serve to contextualise the changes that led ultimately to British contact and colonisation.
Greene, Dr Kevin
Senior Lecturer in Archaeology, Newcastle (H7; H1)
The Economy of the Roman Empire: Material Perspectives
The nature of the Roman economy defies simple explanation because neither the documentary evidence analysed by historians nor the material evidence investigated by archaeologists survives in sufficient quantities to resolve fundamental questions. Thus, historical explanations are filtered through a variety of theoretical preconceptions about the nature of ancient economies while archaeological evidence is frequently made to play a supporting role to texts. My book The Archaeology of the Roman Economy integrated a number of sources of evidence and emphasised the significant role of material evidence, but economic history and archaeology have both moved on since its publication in 1986. I believe that more information can be extracted by taking a broader approach to the complexity of material culture. It has long been assumed that artefacts and other physical evidence passively reflect economic history, and provide proxy evidence for its undocumented aspects. However, approaches to material culture employed by prehistorians, anthropologists and modern-world cultural historians emphasise its active role in everyday life. The incorporation of such approaches will provide new understanding of the consumption of artefacts in the Roman world. My research will also consider the comparative importance of technology in the Roman economy. The outcome of the Research Readership will be a broad study of the Roman economy that exploits recent developments in theory and methodology in order to integrate archaeological and historical approaches to this hotly debated period of economic history.
Hills, Dr Helen
Senior Lecturer in Art History, Manchester (H11)
Spiritual Difference: Architecture, Soul and Body in Early Modern Southern Italy
Helen Hills aims to write a book about the gendered 'spiritual topography' of Naples, focused on the exuberantly decorated Cappella del Tesoro in the cathedral, thinking about it as an encounter between competing gendered socio-political, spiritual and artistic currents in baroque Naples. Thus I try to decipher the traces left by the dynamics which produced the chapel both backwards and forwards in time and space across the city.
My concern is to investigate the gendering of devotion and its impact on urbanism and architecture in post-Tridentine southern Italy, and vice versa. This means drawing together three areas of vigorous scholarly interest and interrogating them in relation to each other: (i) gender and spatiality; (ii) gender and devotional practices; (iii) holiness and the urban in the post-Tridentine city.
My work is deliberately focused on Naples as a neglected city in terms of baroque studies. So in part, I'm seeking to address the continued dominance in Seicento studies of Rome (anomalous as seat of the Church and male-dominated) and of northern Italy, which distorts our understanding of devotional material culture in Italy. In short, my project investigates the aristocratization-feminization of spirituality and its impact on urbanism after Trent in southern Italy.
Hooker, Professor Brad
Professor of Moral Philosophy, Reading (H12)
Professor Hooker's project is to write a book on fairness. During the 1960s and '70s, many philosophers held that fairness regularly conflicts with the goal of maximizing aggregate welfare. But the theories of fairness put forward during those decades were discovered in the 1980s and '90s to have fatal flaws. The theories put forward more recently have not met with consensus approval. I aim to expound a theory of fairness that synthesizes the best elements of previous theories and establishes a new framework for discussion in this area.
Johansen, Dr Thomas
Reader in Philosophy Edinburgh (H12; H1)
Aristotle's Faculty Psychology
Faculty psychology seeks to explain the multitude of psychological phenomena by reference to a limited and permanent set of capacities. First developed by ancient philosophers - Aristotle in particular - the approach was influential in the 18th and 19th centuries. In recent years, faculty psychology has resurfaced: understood as mental 'modules', faculties are widely thought to play a fundamental role in cognitive and evolutionary psychology. This study provides a re-examination of Aristotle's faculty psychology. The project has three aims:
- To explain what a psychological faculty is according to Aristotle and what roles the faculties play within his account of the soul.
- To enhance our understanding of Aristotle's psychological naturalism by placing the faculties of the soul within their biological context.
- To assess the relevance of Aristotle's faculty psychology today in the light of recent theorizing about faculties in cognitive and evolutionary psychology.
The study falls into three parts: Part I considers Aristotle's definition and uses of the faculties of the soul in the De Anima. Part II considers the application of the faculties in the biological works to account for the composition and activities of living beings. Finally, Part III explores the relevance of Aristotle's psychology today through comparisons with cognitive and evolutionary psychology.
The study is to be published as a monograph.
Khan, FBA, Professor Geoffrey (Marc Fitch Research Readership)
Professor of Semitic Philology, Cambridge (H3; H4)
The Christian Neo-Aramaic Dialect of the Barwar Region
The aim of the project of my Research Readership is to make a detailed grammatical description of an Aramaic dialect that until the 1970s was spoken in Christian villages in the Barwar region of Northern Iraq. This belongs to a dialect group known as North Eastern Neo-Aramaic, which includes the last surviving remnants of vernacular Aramaic in Iraq. All of the dialects of this group are now endangered. For more details of this group, see the website http://nena.oriental.cam.ac.uk/
In the 1970s the villages in the Barwar region were destroyed during political disturbances and the inhabitants were forced to flee their homes. Many settled outside Iraq in Europe and North America. On account of this population displacement, the dialect is now on the verge of extinction. The dialect together with a rich tradition of dialectal literature that was orally transmitted in the region will be lost to knowledge completely if descriptive work is not made in the next few years. The product of my research will be a volume containing a descriptive grammar consisting of sections on phonology, morphology, syntax and the lexicon. It will also contain an extensive corpus of transcribed oral texts and a glossary.
Murphy, Dr Andrew
Reader in English, St Andrews (H6)
The People's Bard: Shakespeare's Working Class Readers, 1800-1900
This project will map the rise and fall of a working-class audience for Shakespeare during the course of the nineteenth century. It will tie the emergence of this audience to two factors: (i) the broadening of access to education afforded to working-class children from the end of the eighteenth century, and (ii) the increasing availability of cheap books as the nineteenth century progressed. The project will track working-class readers' responses to Shakespeare by drawing on a large pool of autobiographies published during the course of the century. It engages particularly with a subset of these readers for whom Shakespeare's works had real political purchase. The project will conclude by attempting to explain why Shakespeare's popularity among a working-class readership declined in the closing years of the century. This decline will be linked to changes in educational provision, to a shift in readers' focus to other forms of publishing (specifically the newspaper and cheap fiction) and to the development of a split between popular and elite forms of culture.
Newman, Professor Simon P.
Sir Denis Brogan Professor of American Studies Glasgow (H9)
The Transformation of Working Life and Culture in the British Atlantic World, 1600-1800
An Atlantic World paradigm has informed a great deal of recent work on the history of early modern Europe, West Africa and the Americas, but the vast diversity of people and places within this world has made integrated and comprehensive analysis difficult. This project will employ a series of case studies of the changes in working life and culture in selected cities and regions around the British Atlantic World (Glasgow, London, Jamaica, Philadelphia and Nova Scotia). Transcending the local and the particular, the resulting monograph will use work as the prism through which to illuminate how the advent of the Atlantic World affected daily life, exploring how people's work - the kinds of work they did, their conditions of work, the goods and products they processed, produced and consumed, and the consequent changes in their daily lives - was transformed by the movement of people and goods occasioned by the Atlantic World. This project will be organised into three sections: the first will explore life around the Atlantic World in the seventeenth century, as people from the British Isles began to become actively involved with West African, Caribbean and mainland North American societies; the second will deal with the dramatic changes in these societies and in English and Scottish society as colonies were founded and people and goods began flowing across and around the Atlantic; while the final section will chronicle development over the later seventeenth and the eighteenth centuries as West African and indigenous American societies were overwhelmed, British society transformed, and European settlements in the Americas matured. In each of these sections, the analysis of a rich historiography will be fleshed out by case studies illustrating the changes in daily life, work and culture experienced by people living in Britain (especially London and Glasgow); in West Africa; on plantations in Jamaica; and in Philadelphia and its hinterland, and in Nova Scotia. The Transformation of Working Life and Culture in the British Atlantic World, 1600-1800 will illuminate the history of the British Atlantic World by telling the stories of its workers.
Pickering, Professor Martin
Professor of the Psychology of Language and Communication Edinburgh (S6; H4)
The Mechanisms of Dialogue
Dialogue is the most natural and basic form of language use, but little is known of the mechanisms that underlie it, because psycholinguists have focused almost entirely on the study of monologue. I shall conduct a programme of experimental and theoretical research into dialogue that has the goal of developing a new framework for psycholinguistics. I would develop my /interactive-alignment account/ (Pickering & Garrod, 2004, /Behavioral and Brain Sciences/1) into a book and a series of theoretical papers. Additionally, I shall conduct experimental studies concerned with determining the way in which interlocutors align their linguistic and conceptual representations during successful dialogue. In many cases, I shall monitor interlocutors' eye movements during interactive tasks, to determine the extent to which their eye movements are yoked to each other. The research would inform cognitive and social psychology, as well as other disciplines concerned with the study of dialogue.
1Pickering, M.J., & Garrod, S. (2004). Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 27, 169-225.
Raven, Professor James
Professor of Modern British History Essex (H10; H6)
The Making of the English Novel
James Raven is writing a social and commercial history of the novel in England from the early eighteenth century to the early twentieth century. In particular he will examine the promotion of popular novels as commodities and investigate the business and reception of changing modes of publication. By using new approaches to the history of popular literature, the mass reading public and the tensions between book production and literary devaluation, he will be completing a history of the manufacture, marketing and reception of the novel from its commercial beginnings to its confrontation with new business interests in popular culture two hundred years later.
Robinson, Dr Chase
University Lecturer in Islamic History Oxford (H8; H3)
Traditionism, Politics and Society in 9th Century Iraq
Many normative forms of Islamic belief and practice date not from the earliest period of Islam, but from the late 8th and 9th centuries. This period witnessed the rise of Islamic traditionism, which lodged religious authority in reports of the Prophet's words and deeds as they were recorded, selected, invented and compiled in definitive collections, and then transmitted and interpreted by traditionist lawyers and jurists. Notions of authority and techniques of power accordingly changed in essential ways, and the result was a far-reaching re-ordering of Muslim society in the Fertile Crescent—one that can be discerned not merely in historiography, law and politics, but elsewhere too, such as in urban topography. While scholarship has made great progress towards understanding how traditionism emerged, we know little about why it came about or why it came about when it did. My provisional argument is that traditionism expressed a catholic authoritarianism that suited diverse social elites, and it worked not by coercing (as earlier caliphs had tried), but by exemplifying and modeling.
Snowling, Professor Margaret J.
Professor of Psychology, York (S6)
Language Skills and Learning to Read
It is well established that learning to read depends critically upon one particular aspect of language, namely phonological skills. Thus, children with poor phonology go on to have reading problems (dyslexia). However, poor reading is the common endpoint of a number of different developmental trajectories; although phonological skills are important in the early stages of learning to read, wider language skills are important for the development of reading comprehension. It follows that, rather than classifying reading disorders into categories, there is merit in a dimensional view that considers how phonological deficits act as risk factors for poor word-level decoding skills, whereas semantic, grammatical and pragmatic deficits mediate the risk of poor reading comprehension. In this view, a child's reading ability will depend upon the interaction of risk factors (of varying severity) with other language skills that may operate as 'protective' factors, and environmental factors, such as the teaching that is received. This proposal is to develop a comprehensive theory of reading development and disorder. The initial studies will analyse and model the relationships between oral and written language skills using three longitudinal data sets from research following the progress of children at high-risk of reading difficulties through the school years. This work will be complemented by a series of case studies of children who have failed to respond to conventional reading intervention programmes. Findings will be integrated with current knowledge in a monograph on language skills and learning to read.
Sorace, Professor Antonella
Professor of Developmental Linguistics, Edinburgh (H4)
Gradience in Split Intransitivity: Theoretical and Experimental Explorations of the Lexicon-Syntax Interface
The aim of this project is to write a monograph on gradience in split intransitivity. Starting with my 1992 dissertation, my research has shown that there is systematic and gradient variation in the syntax of intransitive verbs. I have proposed a 'Split Intransitivity Hierarchy' to capture the differential susceptibility of intransitive verbs to variable syntax in terms of their different combinations of aspectual and semantic features. This work has had a substantial impact in several distinct areas. My goal is to bring together typological, theoretical, developmental, and psycholinguistic evidence bearing on the Hierarchy in a coherent interpretative framework, analysing the different strands of research generated by my hypothesis within the single unifying focus of 'interface' between syntax and other cognitive domains.
Bright, Mrs Susan
Reader in Land Law, New College, Oxford
Leases: Landlords, Tenants and Legal Theory
[Award deferred to October 2005]
This research will be used to write a book providing a theoretical foundation of the law of leases. Leases of land underpin much land use in Great Britain. Approximately one in three homes is rented, one third of agricultural land is tenanted, and almost two-thirds of commercial property is leased. The concept of a lease is ancient, being developed over centuries by the courts and added to piecemeal by legislation, with socio-economic events acting as catalysts. The pace of change in leasehold law witnessed over the last couple of decades is unlikely to diminish as human rights legislation, social housing measures, judicial developments, and the results of extensive Law Commission activity all impact on the regulation and uses of leases. This research will explore the law of leases from a number of perspectives - historical, comparative, social, and theoretical - in order to provide a deeper understanding of the nature and uses of leases, of the rights and responsibilities within the leasehold relationship, and an analysis of whether the concepts of the past meet modern and future needs. There are three key areas that will be examined. Firstly, the doctrinal basis of leases as both “property” and “contract”, and the impact that doctrinal classification has upon the development of the law. Second, the wider context of leases will be considered, with a discussion of the variety of factors that influence and shape the leasehold relationship. Third, the work of property and contract legal theorists will be applied to leases.
Campbell, Dr Ian
Reader in Architectural History and Theory, Edinburgh College of Art
The Renaissances of Scotland and Ireland
Many so-called late medieval buildings in Scotland and Ireland do not conform to the Perpendicular style current in England. Common characteristics of these building are features inspired by Romanesque and early Gothic architecture, allowing Scottish and Irish architecture of the period to be categorised as backward and aberrant. However, Brunelleschi, who is now recognised to have copied Romanesque rather than genuinely Roman models, is regarded as the founder of Renaissance architecture from c. 1420. The presence of the revivalist traits in Scottish and Irish architecture from the late fourteenth century suggests that the Renaissance is not a uniquely Italian phenomenon and can be interpreted as part of a cultural and political resurgence in all three areas, following the lift of a threat by a dominant neighbour, whose architectural style is then rejected.
Building on some already-published research, I first intend to examine the meaning of the concept of the Renaissance in relation to Scottish and Irish architecture of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, exploring the links between the two countries to see whether the similarities are cross-fertilisation or independent parallel developments.
The second aim is to trace how Scotland and Ireland gradually assimilated the Italianate Renaissance into their own architectural cultures up to the arrival of canonical classicism in the seventeenth century. In the case of Scotland it is not merely a case of reception but also of exporting its vigorous architectural tradition elsewhere within Europe, as far as Moscow.
Henderson, Professor Julian
Professor of Archaeological Science, University of Nottingham
Glass Provenance and its Impact on Glass Studies
Over the past twenty years the study of ancient glass has grown significantly. A number of new glass production sites has been excavated scientifically and provided new insights into the ways in which glass was manufactured. Studies of the raw glasses and primary raw materials are beginning to produce some intriguing results. Amongst these results is the provenance of ancient glass, whichhas not been a realistic possibility until now. The project consists of a core of primary research which will focus on glass provenance.The results are expected to contribute to the study of ancient glass in new and potentially fundamental ways, but also, ultimately, it may be possible to contribute significantly to the study of faience and early glazes which were made from the same raw materials as glass. Full isotopic - and chemical - characterisation of the plants used to make second millennium BC and Islamic plant ash glasses will reflect their geological origins. Since the glass made from these plants can be characterised in the same way, it should be possible to provenance the glass. The project is a collaborative one with the Directorate of Antiquities in Damascus, the British Geological Survey and Oxford University. Plant sampling will be in collaboration with one of Syria’s leading botanists. The results should contribute to models of production, distribution and use of these glasses in the 2nd millennium BC and Islamic periods. The results of the research will be published as a book in which glass as a material will be discussed in a holistic way, drawing on a range of archaeological, ethnographic and scientific examples.
Hintze, Dr Almut
Zartoshty Lecturer in Zoroastrianism, SOAS
A Zoroastrian High Ritual: The Yasna
This project is about the single most important text of Zoroastrianism, Iran's pre-Islamic religion. The "Worship" (Avestan Yasna), the oldest parts of which probably date from around the twelfth century bce, is not only among the earliest documents written in an Iranian language but also one of the oldest extant ritual liturgies in any language. While the only complete English translation of the Yasna (1887) is now outdated, the project proposed here, incorporating both the Avestan text and a translation of the entire Yasna, has never been undertaken before. It will result in the publication of a substantial volume comprising an edition of the Avestan text based on the best manuscript readings, together with an English translation, a commentary discussing philological problems and an introduction highlighting the significance of this text both as a literary composition and a religious document.
Hotson, Professor Howard
Professor in Early Modern History, University of Aberdeen
The Revival of Millenarianism in Early Modern Europe
This project will undertake the first comprehensive, analytical survey of the revival of millenarianism in early modern Europe, Britain and America based firmly on the primary sources and grounded in a reassessment of the application of social scientific models to the data of intellectual history. The conceptual basis of this survey will be the consistent application of a traditional, restrictive, essentially theological definition of millenarianism in place of the loose and anachronistic social-scientific definitions employed in most previous historical literature on this period. The corresponding methodological basis of the study will be to approach millenarianism in the first instance, not as an irrational behaviour of marginal groups explicable only by reference to an imported theoretical framework, but as a closely reasoned theological opinion defended by leading early modern intellectuals and intelligible in their own terms. The evidential basis of the study will be a broad and representative sample of major millenarian writings from across Europe, Britain and America from the late medieval period to the eighteenth century. One fruit of this approach will be to reveal for the first time the general contours of an early modern revival of millenarianism steadily expanding in the post-Reformation era to reach its greatest geographical, confessional, social and cultural diffusion in the latter seventeenth century. A second outcome will be an explanation of this revival deeply rooted in the historical data but ultimately congruent with properly applied social-scientific frameworks. The general results of the study will therefore be to propose a new paradigm for understanding early modern millenarianism, to suggest a new model for the application of social scientific paradigms to the data of intellectual history, and to reveal the need for international and macrohistorical perspectives to complement the national and microhistorical approaches currently dominant.
Hoyle, Professor Richard
Professor of Rural History, University of Reading
A New Economic and Social History of Britain, 1500–1700
There is a need for a new economic and social history of Britain. Over the past twenty years our knowledge of the economy and society of Britain in the early modern period has grown enormously. New (sub-)disciplines have appeared: work on such areas as demographic history, women’s social and economic lives, state finance and consumption has been revelatory. Equally much excellent work has been undertaken on Ireland and Scotland, on the American colonies in New England and in the West Indies and on the Atlantic economy. And so there is a need to take stock, to assimilate the detailed research of the past couple of decades into the more general record where it is accessible to colleagues within the profession, to undergraduates and (hopefully) to the general history-reading public.
The aim of this project is not simply to select from recent historical writing that which seems to be important and worthy of keeping. It is also to try and reformulate British economic and social history in these two centuries around four key principles. First, a new history needs to be set within a comparative north European perspective. Second, it needs to be genuinely British. This is not merely a way of showing how exceptional limited parts of the English and Scottish lowlands were within the British Isles and of shifting attention away from the arable south-east of these islands to the pastoral west. It is also the way in which the history of the British overseas (first in Ireland, then in north America, south Asia and so on) can be integrated into the record and the terrific expansionist and commercial impulse that drove trade particularly in the seventeenth century explained. Thirdly, it needs to emphasise the role of government, state institutions, legal systems and property rights in creating the conditions for economic growth. Fourthly, it needs to give weight to capital, capitalism and capitalists and set human behaviour within the moral and social frameworks that governed it.
The overall aim is to make a new statement of what economic and social history can contribute to the discipline of early modern history and demonstrate its centrality to our understanding of the period.
Hudson, Professor John
Professor of Legal History, Department of Medieval History, University of St Andrews
The History of English Law, c.870–1220 (Oxford History of the Laws of England, Volume 1)
This study of the beginnings of English Common Law breaks down standard chronological divisions. In covering a longer period than do many legal histories, it raises important questions about legal change and its causes. The reigns of Alfred the Great, William the Conqueror, and Henry II have all been taken as vital times of legal transformation. Gathering them will allow comparison of the form and degree of transformation. It also raises more general issues about the relationship of legal development to rapid political change, to the particular aspirations of individual rulers, to administrative growth and bureaucratization, and to social or cultural shifts. Rather than seeking a beginning point or origin, the study looks at the formation of the Common Law as a process of conjuncture between various elements. The Anglo-Saxon period provided ideas of powerful legislative kingship, strong government, local courts closely connected to the king, and many elements significant to the later Common Law regarding crime. The Anglo-Norman period crucially preserved this legacy, whilst introducing new customs regarding land-holding. Such developments were necessary but not sufficient conditions for the development of the Common Law. The Angevin period produced essential elements of routinization and bureaucratization, also connected to an increasingly literate legal culture. At this time royal justices may have exercised their greatest influence over the development of law, acting as a major force for standardization. Increasingly justices were deciding cases, rather than simply presiding over courts, but their expertise was yet to be rivaled by that of a legal profession representing litigants. By the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, law was becoming more clearly distanced from ordinary social practice, as certain royal legal measures were having effects which surprised parties to cases. At the same time, we see the emergence of legal devices based on unintended effects of the technicalities of law, not the normal and intended workings of legal rules. These developments underlie the emergence of the legal profession and of legal change through professional argument, judicial decision, and legislation, which were to characterize later Common Law development. The study, when complete, will appear as the chronologically earliest volume of the Oxford History of the Laws of England.
Mack, Professor Peter
Professor of English, Warwick University
Shakespeare, Montaigne and Renaissance Ethical Reading
Humanist schools in sixteenth century France and England provided their pupils with a range of maxims and stories, techniques for reading texts and methods of generating arguments and manipulating received material. My last book Elizabethan Rhetoric described these techniques and showed how they were used in letters, practical arguing, political debate and religious discourse. In this project I shall compare the ways in which Montaigne and Shakespeare made use of this shared inheritance. I shall argue that the techniques of the grammar school and the pressures of writing for new genres and new audiences enabled them to produce striking formulations and original ideas. Montaigne and Shakespeare were both critical readers of classical and historical texts. Both interrogated the ethical principles and narratives they inherited, Montaigne first by exploring their consequences and contradictions and later by applying the touchstone of personal experience to the materials presented by reading; Shakespeare by rewriting existing narratives and giving poetic voice to the different roles within them. Both lived intensively with their own earlier work: Montaigne in the constant enrichment of his texts as a consequence of new reading and further reflection; Shakespeare through acting in his old plays and taking a different imaginative viewpoint on their situations and motifs as the basis for new work.
Meyerhoff, Dr Miriam
Reader in Linguistics, University of Edinburgh
Language Variation on Bequia (St Vincent, West Indies): An Investigation of Social and Linguistic Factors
Residents of Bequia, a small and comparatively isolated island in the St Vincent & Grenadines, use several varieties of English in day-to-day life. At one end of the linguistic continuum, there are varieties similar to other Eastern Caribbean English Creoles; at the other end of the continuum, there are varieties much closer to Standard English. This project involves sociolinguistic fieldwork on Bequia. The descriptive component of the project involves documenting what the different varieties of English on Bequia are, and how they are used in different social contexts and to different social effect. Recordings of more than forty speakers in three different localities (the main town and more isolated villages) have already been completed; further recordings in small groups and community interactions will be completed in 2004. The corpus will include speakers of different ethnicities (Black, White and Creole) or different family lines (since ethnicity is a sometimes problematic category on Bequia), and speakers engaged in different occupations (traditional activities such as fishing and whaling, the service industries surrounding tourism, and traditional gardening). The project will use the descriptive data to explore how well different sociolinguistic approaches to language variation model the variability found in the tense-aspect system of Bequian. The outcomes will include materials for an academic audience, and also more widely accessible materials foregrounding language diversity in Bequia for local use.
Price, Dr Munro
Reader in Modern European History , Bradford University
Politics in a Revolutionary Age: France 1814–1848
This project will re-examine a very neglected, yet crucially important period of modern French political history, from the Bourbon restoration in 1814 to the Parisian revolution of February 1848. It will focus on France’s only major experiment in constitutional monarchy, and its strengths and weaknesses. Above all it will question the general assumption of historians of the period that its ultimate failure was inevitable.
The research will focus predominantly on the July monarchy, which has the strongest claim to be considered as France’s most successful period of constitutional monarchy. It will concentrate especially on the relationships and policies at the heart of government, and in particular on the political role of king Louis-Philippe between 1830 and 1848. It will examine the particular type of monarchy Louis-Philippe sought to achieve and to project to the political nation, in a comparative perspective with that of his predecessors back to Louis XVI. At the heart of this will be a study of the considerable executive and legislative powers the king retained, in both domestic and foreign policy, and his relations with his ministers. The wider political system of the constitutional monarchy will also be analysed, including the reasons why it was able to weather one major crisis in July 1830, yet succumbed to an arguably much less serious one in February 1848.
Simons, Professor Peter
Professor of Philosophy, School of Philosophy, University of Leeds
Quantities: The Metaphysics of the Measured
For Aristotle, quantity , giving an answer to a “How much?” question, was one of the fundamental categories of being. Modern logic, philosophy and mathematics have largely ignored, reduced, or taken for granted the notion of quantity, with the result that it has been poorly researched and understood since the time of Helmholtz, Hölder and Huntington. Quantities are central to the application of mathematics in science and everyday life, yet in the debates about the applicability of mathematics, and its alleged indispensability to science, the role of quantities, as that to which mathematics is most directly applied, is generally overlooked. During his tenure of the Readership, Peter Simons will investigate the metaphysics of quantities themselves, setting out to fill the gap in our philosophical understanding of the applicability of mathematics and bidding to expand the debate surrounding the philosophy of mathematics, which tends to centre on pure mathematics. It is conjectured that while there is no single structure essential to all quantities, they can be classified as a formal clade by their various features, and that the concept of a positive magnitude is central to this classification.
Stott, Professor Rebecca
Head of Department of English and Drama and Affiliated Scholar of the Dept of History and Philosophy of Science, Anglia Polytechnic University, Cambridge
The Poetics of Evolution
This project will produce a monograph called The Poetics of Evolution, a study of the uses of natural philosophy in early nineteenth-century poetry particularly the work of Tennyson, Elizabeth Barrett Browning and Arthur Hugh Clough. A major revisionary study of the use of evolutionary ideas in early nineteenth-century British poetry is long overdue as almost all of the studies of literature and science in the nineteenth century have concentrated on Darwinian ideas and on their impact on prose fiction. Instead this project will focus on the cultural impact of pre-Darwinian natural philosophical ideas about the origin and destination of humankind and the conversational poetics made of such speculations. The Poetics of Evolution will differ from earlier cultural studies of evolutionary ideas in several important ways. It will start in the late eighteenth century with a study of the reception in Britain of the works of French evolutionists Buffon, Lamarck, Geoffroy St-Hilaire and a study of the use of evolutionary ideas in the works of Erasmus Darwin, Coleridge and other romantic poets in order to shift the emphasis away from Darwin’s Origin of Species as the supposed major point of cultural assimilation.
This study builds on Professor Stott’s earlier published research, particularly Tennyson (Longman, 1996), Elizabeth Barrett Browning (co-authored with Simon Avery, Longman, 2003), Darwin and the Barnacle (Faber 2003), and Theatres of Glass (Short Books, 2003) as well as her research within the History and Philosophy of Science Department at Cambridge University.
Williams, Professor Allan
Professor of Human Geography and European Studies, University of Exeter
International Migration, Skills and Knowledge: From Human Capital to Socially- and Workplace-Situated Learning
This proposal is framed by three major social science research concerns:
- The growth in, and changes in the nature of, skilled international migration . This is increasingly characterised by circuits of short term mobility, particularly amongst more developed countries.
- While there has long been a discourse on the human capital transfers associated with migration , the increasing role of skilled labour migration has revitalised debates relating to ‘brain gain’ versus ‘brain drain’ versus ‘brain waste’ etc for countries of origin and destination.
- The knowledge economy has been at the centre of recent economic development debates. Local and regional development theories have focussed in particular on the idea of the ‘learning region’ or the ‘learning city’, exploring notions such as collective learning, shared value and mutual interdependencies. This has tended to underplay the key role played by international migration in innovation and knowledge transfers.
The central aim of the research is to extend understanding of how migrants’ human capital is constituted, transferred and utilised in hybridised forms in both countries of origin and destination. There are three main component projects.
Initially, the programme will explore the re-conceptualisation of migrant learning, and the acquisition, application and diffusion of skills. It will explore the relationships between the literatures on tacit versus explicit knowledge, specific competences and types of skill, workplace versus socially situated learning, the transferability versus the embeddedness of skills, and the social recognition of skills. This will be supplemented by two case studies: of migrant learning in the UK and returned migrant knowledge transfers to Central Europe (Slovakia).
Case studies will be based on in-depth interviews with a range of skilled migrants and returned migrants, exploring the importance of differences in migration experiences and skills. It will focus on their experiences of workplace and socially situated learning, as migrants and returned migrants. Employers in both the public (including health) and private sectors will also be interviewed to provide an understanding of how companies recognise, enhance and seek to diffuse the knowledge and skills carried by migrants and returned migrants. Finally, interviews will be undertaken with key informants in government and voluntary sector bodies engaged with training and learning relating to migrants in the two case study countries.
The programme will contribute to the literature on knowledge economies, and to the debate about the role of international migration in producing and reproducing these, and associated social and spatial inequalities.
Wood, Professor Ian
Professor of Early Medieval History, University of Leeds
The Use and Abuse of the Early Middle Ages in the Eighteenth, Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries
Interpretations of the Early Middle Ages have played a central role in the self-definition of Europe. Whilst major aspects of European culture can be traced back to the Greco-Roman period, no European state is a direct descendent of the Roman Empire. Various western European countries can, however, claim to be descendents of kingdoms founded in the direct aftermath of the Fall of Rome. As a result, the period from 400 to 600 has been exploited in various ways since the eighteenth century. One aspect of this has been relatively well, but not exhaustively, charted in recent years: the role which the barbarian migrations played in the development of theories of ethnicity in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Germany. There are other equally important issues, however, which have been less well considered: for instance the use of the Early Middle Ages in debates about the French monarchy in the decades before the French Revolution, and indeed Gibbon's position in those debates. Even in the late twentieth century the peoples of the Migration Age have been used in political discourse, both to promote the cause of European Unity, and in the cause of regionalism. Over the last decade major exhibitions in France and Germany have explicitly seen in the Franks a model for the European Union. My research aims to study changing patterns in the exploitation of the Early Middle Ages, in politics and culture, over the last two and half centuries. It will thus be a study of the exploitation of the past, but will also necessarily contribute to debates about the relevance of medieval studies in the modern world.
Professor Martin Bell
Professor of Archaeological Science, Department of Archaeology, University of Reading
Coastal Archaeology of Britain and North West Europe
Recent years have seen a tremendous upsurge of interest in coastal zone archaeology and environmental change. In part this is because many sites with exceptional organic preservation have recently been discovered in the coastal zone, in part also because the remit of the heritage agencies has recently been extended to include coastal zone archaeology. Published and unpublished surveys and the writer’s original field research will contribute to the development of databases of coastal archaeology as a foundation for a new thematically based book analysing what is distinctive about past coastal ways of life. A diversity of relationships will be identified linking human agency to constantly changing coastal environments. The resulting book will focus on prehistoric Britain and north-west Europe with additional case studies drawn from other parts of the world. The researcher’s own field projects in western Britain will contribute case studies. As part of the project three detailed site studies will also be brought to final separate publication: these are exceptionally preserved Mesolithic sites and environmental sequences at Goldcliff and Prestatyn in Wales and a Bronze Age settlement of Redwick in the Severn Estuary. The project will lead to a more sophisticated understanding of the relationship between coastal change and human activity, seasonality and sedentism, coastal-inland relationships, perceptual issues and a more precise understanding of temporal and spatial contrast in patterns of coastal exploitation.
Dr John Divers
Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Department of Philosophy, University of Sheffield
Dispensing with Possible Worlds
Talk of possible worlds figures centrally in discussions of modality and intensionality across a wide range of philosophical disciplines including metaphysics, philosophical logic, philosophy of language and philosophy of science. Some philosophers have been prepared to accept the existence of possible worlds in order to lay claim to the benefits that possible-world talk affords. But whether possible worlds are construed as non-actual concrete entities or as actual abstract entities, a formidable range of philosophical difficulties and challenges is associated with the acceptance of their existence. Thus, in this case as elsewhere, philosophers are attracted by the anti-realistic project of securing the benefits associated with the use of a certain discourse, while avoiding the problematic ontological commitments that is threatens. John Divers’ research during his tenure of the Readership is aimed towards the production of a monograph which will offer the first systematic taxonomy, exposition and evaluation of the options for such an antirealism about possible worlds.
Professor Saul Dubow
Professor of History, Department of History, University of Sussex
A Commonwealth of Ideas: Colonial Knowledge and National Identity in South Africa, c. 1830-1970
This study of the politics of knowledge addresses the relationship between social and scientific thought, colonial identity, and political power in nineteenth and twentieth century South Africa. It hinges on the tension between colonial knowledge, conceived of as a universal modernising and progressive force, and its realisation in the particular context of a society divided along complex ethnic and racial fault-lines. Through analysis of the development of colonial epistemic cultures, literary and scientific institutions, and expert historical thinking about South Africa and its peoples, Professor Dubow aims to demonstrate the complex ways in which the cultivation of knowledge has served to support claims to nationhood and political ascendancy. The study has two subsidiary objectives. One is to provide a sustained - if oblique - commentary on modern South African historiography, with particular reference to the rise of competing nationalisms. The other is to engage in wider debates about the nature of colonial knowledge systems by reflecting on problems such as the role of intellectual ideas and concepts in constituting ethnic and racial, as well as regional and national identities; the dissemination of ideas between imperial metropole and colonial periphery (or province); the emergence of amateur and professional intellectual communities; and the encounter between imperial and indigenous or local knowledge systems.
Professor Christopher Duggan
Professor of Modern Italian History, School of Modern Languages, University of Reading
The Construction of Italy, 1796-1945
Building on recent research into issues of nation-building and national identity in Italy, Professor Duggan’s project will explore the mechanisms that the ruling elites sought to deploy in order to turn Italy from a ‘geographical expression’ into a nation that was morally unified. He will examine the ideas ofRisorgimento, with their unstable amalgam of liberalism and primordialist nationalism, and hopes of regeneration and mission, and look at how the country’s leaders after 1860 attempted to reconcile this potent legacy with the harsh realities of a land that was deeply fragmented, impoverished and beset with internal enemies - notably the Catholic Church, anarchism and socialism. He will suggest that the attempts to construct an organic national community after 1860 led Italy’s elites rapidly to lose faith in liberalism and to countenance less rational and more extreme tools of ‘national education’. Ideas of myth, sacralised politics, charismatic leadership, violence and war - all of which had featured prominently in the rhetoric of the Risorgimento - were widely explored from the 1870s, and, possibly, had a greater impact on the conduct of Italian politics than has often been admitted. This project aims to throw new light on both the roots and character of Italian fascism.
Dr Philip J Ford
Reader in French and Neo-Latin Literature, Clare College, Cambridge
The Reception of Homer in Renaissance France: From Theory into Practice
This project is aimed at analysing and illustrating the impact of the Homeric epics on sixteenth-century French writing, in particular, poetry. It involves in the first place a full assessment of Homeric publication throughout Europe from the first fifteenth-century editions through to the end of the sixteenth century. Secondly, it focuses on an examination of various ways in which the Homeric texts were read and interpreted, assessing how Renaissance humanists reacted to and developed commentaries handed down from the ancient world, Byzantium, and, more recently, Italy, to form their own interpretations of Homer. Finally, there will be an assessment and analysis of the ways in which French Renaissance poets, particularly the poets of the Pléiade, exploited and interpreted Homer in their own poetry, as well as the ways in which their readings spread, for example, to the visual arts.
Professor Martin Goodman, FBA
Professor of Jewish Studies, Oriental Institute, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford
Jewish and Roman Attitudes in the First-Century Mediterranean World: Comparisons and Contrasts
A systematic comparison of Jewish and Roman attitudes to all aspects of their shared world as part of an enquiry into the causes of the marginalisation of the Jews in the early Roman empire. Subjects to be examined will include attitudes to history and the future; the geography of the world; the nature of man and his physical surroundings; the purpose of life and morality; personal relationships; the nature and purpose of the state; and criteria for social status.
Professor Stephen Graham
Professor of Urban Technology, School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape, University of Newcastle
The Software-Sorted Society: Rethinking the ‘Digital Divide’
This project aims to ‘get inside’ the software code that helps to organise contemporary society. It will be the first research in the UK to develop a detailed, cross-cutting analysis of the social and political implications of techniques that use software to sort people’s opportunities. As a way of re-thinking the ‘digital divide’ the project will analyse the ways in which automated software-based services, networks and spaces are automatically privileging some users whilst marginalising others. This will be done through case studies of the software-based management of commercial streets (digital CCTV), computer and communications systems (call centers and the internet), and energy markets (smart and pre-payment meters). The project aims to improve our understanding of the roles of software in structuring and dividing society. It will also help to identify the challenges raised by software-sorting for public policy and regulation.
Dr Michael Lobban
Reader in Law, Department of Law, Queen Mary, University of London
The Law of Obligations 1820-1914
This project seeks to provide a new history of the law of obligations in the nineteenth century, tracing three main areas of private law: the law of contract, torts and the law relating to trade and commerce. The latter includes the law of debt and debt collection, insolvency, and bankruptcy, and company law, as well as the law of banking, insurance and maritime trade. The nineteenth century is a particularly important era in the history of private law, and one with a rich quantity of available materials for study, yet it is an era which has in many respects been neglected by legal historians. The foundations of many modern doctrines can be traced to this era - notably in contract and tort law - and many of the doctrinal dilemmas which still engage legal scholars may be traced to particular intellectual or policy choices made at that time. At the same time, an understanding of the nature of private law is vital to our understanding of nineteenth-century English society, and this study will seek to locate the doctrinal and theoretical developments in their social and political contexts. The study, when completed, will form a part of the Victorian volumes of the New Oxford History of the Laws of England.
Dr Jerzy T Lukowski
Senior Lecturer in Modern History, Department of Modern History, University of Birmingham
Utopianism and Enlightenment: The Political Culture of Eighteenth-Century Poland-Lithuania
The project is to produce a comprehensive history of the political ideas of the Polish Enlightenment. The political constitution which the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth inherited from the seventeenth century retained huge attractions for its beneficiaries, the nobility, permitting them to see themselves as uniquely privileged in their liberties and ability to participate in the processes of government and legislation, not only in relation to their neighbours, but Europe as a whole. Since the ‘nobility’ orszlachta made up perhaps ten per cent of the Commonwealth’s population, and the term ‘szlachta’ embraced individuals of every economic level, from magnates to the destitute, any attempt to reshape the position of these ideological stakeholders was bound to encounter suspicion and difficulties on a large scale. Reformers had to argue against norms which conferred a sense of dignity and moral superiority on nobles, and which were also widely recognised as goods in themselves (Jaucourt’s article ‘Pologne’ in the Encyclopédie uses many aspects of the Polish constitution to criticise the French monarchy). Reform-minded writers had to overcome their own disagreements as to the adoption of a pragmatic or idealistic approach. The Catholicism which underpinned the nobility’s view of themselves was a further obstacle to change, not least because so many reformers were Catholic ecclesiastics. These tensions were never fully resolved, but they provide an example of the difficulties encountered in bringing about reform in a highly politicised society, highly resistant to fiat from above. The ultimate aim of the project is to explore just how far much ideological progress was made in recasting old values and assumptions, not merely through political argument and persuasion, but the attempted re-education of the dominant sector of Polish-Lithuanian society.
Dr Malcolm D MacLeod
Reader in Social and Applied Cognition, School of Psychology, University of St. Andrews
Repression by Suppression: The Role of Active Forgetting in the Control of Unwanted Memories
Typically, we tend to think of forgetting as inconvenient, occasionally upsetting, and sometimes embarrassing. Current thinking on this topic, however, would suggest that some forms of active forgetting may be important for the efficient updating of memory. The suppression of related but unwanted material at retrieval may, under certain circumstances, have the effect of promoting recall for information we wish to remember. It is also possible that inhibitory mechanisms are involved in people’s attempt to actively forget upsetting events in their lives.
The project will comprise a series of empirical studies designed to assess the extent to which it is possible to inhibit memory of emotive material, whether such suppression is controllable, and the effects of repeated inhibition on recall performance. Could inhibition provide a mechanistic explanation for the phenomenon of repressed memory or might it lead, perversely, to increased accessibility? In addressing such questions, we will be better placed to understand the role of memory in adjustment to trauma and, as a consequence, develop effective strategies to support people following traumatic episodes.
Professor Sally Shuttleworth
Professor of English Literature, Department of English Literature, University of Sheffield
The Psychology of Childhood in Victorian Literature, Science and Medicine
This project will produce a monograph that charts the complex interplay between the literary and medical domains as nineteenth-century writers sought to explore the psychology of childhood. Focusing on questions of childhood mental development, it will look at changing representations of imagination, violence, nervous disorders and sexuality, and the child’s relations to primitive cultures and animal forms of life. By opening up the neglected fields of early child development studies and psychiatry, and setting both canonical and non-canonical literary works in a new context, it will offer a range of fresh literary readings. It will also offer an historical overview of both child psychology and psychiatry in Britain from the 1830s through to the crucial decade of the 1890s, when histories customarily begin.
The study builds on Professor Shuttleworth’s previous work on nineteenth-century literature and science, in particular Charlotte Brontë and Victorian Psychology (1996) and Embodied Selves: An Anthology of Psychological Texts 1830-1890 (1998), co-edited with Dr Jenny Bourne Taylor, which contains a section on childhood. It also draws on the findings and methodology of the AHRB and Leverhulme Trust funded project ‘Science in the Nineteenth-Century Periodical’, co-directed with the historian of science Professor Geoffrey Cantor, which explores representations of science across a diverse range of generalist periodicals.
The research opens up a range of difficult questions concerning the inter-relations between disciplinary spheres. Why, for example, did detailed scientific studies of child development lag so far behind literary interest in the child? How far did literary models provide a framework for this emerging scientific field? Conversely, were literary representations of childhood passion or imagination, for example, influenced by the increasingly vehement discourse of child psychiatry? Were there shifting, and indeed competing, models of childhood operating through the period? Did emerging evolutionary theories fundamentally alter cultural conceptions of childhood?
At the heart of the project lies the question of whether a child could be insane. Then, as now, this vexed question raises issues about the age of responsibility, the divisions between adulthood and childhood, the nature of development and inheritance, and the boundaries of normality. The study will move from the early decades of the Victorian period when medical writers vehemently denied that children could suffer mental illness, through to the later decades which witnessed both the birth of evolutionary-based child study, and the pessimistic projections of Maudsleyan psychiatry. In exploring the connections between literary and scientific texts in the 1890s, the book will consider whether ideas of inherited memory acted to overturn the foundational assumptions of earlier definitions of childhood: innocence and lack of experience. If a child is the embodiment of familial and species memories, in what ways can it be said to be still a child?
Dr John T Sidel
Reader in South East Asian Politics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London
Liberalism, Communism, Islam: Transnational Motors of ‘Nationalist’ Struggles in Southeast Asia
This project is intended to elaborate and substantiate a broadly revisionist account of the major struggles of modern Southeast Asian history, which have been described in terms of ‘nationalist’ movements pursuing national goals. The research and writing will trace the three most important transnational ideologies, networks, and horizons which captivated the hearts and minds of Southeast Asians in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries - Liberalism, Communism, and Islam - both in the lived experiences and activities of the urban intelligentsias of the region and in those of broader mass publics. Case studies will cover the entirety of Southeast Asia from the heyday of the Liberal Propagandista Movement in the late nineteenth-century Philippines to the rise of Ho Chi Minh’s Indochinese Communist Party in the 1930s and 1940s to the alleged terrorist activities of Jemaah Islamiya in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore at the turn of the twenty-first century. This project entails both a re-examination of the available secondary literature, and an extensive reading of primary sources in Malay/Indonesian, Tagalog, Jawi, and Arabic.
Professor James Simpson
Professor of Medieval and Renaissance English, English Faculty, University of Cambridge, and Professorial Fellow, Girton College, Cambridge
Reading and Rejection: The English Bible, 1526-1547
Reading and Rejection will be powerfully revisionist. It will invite readers to reflect on the negative obverse of the well-established, and not undeserved, eulogy of the first printed English Bibles. The Bible always provokes readers to divide old from new. In this project I focus on the destructive implications of that division, by tracing the shock waves of the new Bible into the broader culture. I look not only to the more obvious targets of ‘traditional’ religion, but also to the punishing inward pressures, imposed by reading the vernacular Bible, on evangelical readers themselves. The early evangelical English Bible is not and cannot be ‘simple’ in its literal sense; it cannot disassociate itself from institutions; and it threatens institutions no less than readers with rejection.
The textual home base of the project is not the evangelical Bible itself so much as the response it engendered. The enormous, intense and largely uncharted polemical confrontation of Thomas More and various opponents between 1529 and 1533 stands at the centre of the project. These articulate confrontations are exceptionally revealing, as one reading culture confronts another in a struggle for survival. In addition to this large body of material, I consider literary receptions of the Biblical text, such as those of Wyatt and Surrey.
Professor Harvey Whitehouse
Professor of Anthropology, School of Anthropological Studies, Queen’s University, Belfast
Interdisciplinary Project to Test the Theory of Modes of Religiosity
The theory of ‘modes of religiosity’ maintains that substantial variations in the frequency, emotionality, and consequentiality of ritual performances determines the ways in which memory systems are activated; this in turn affects the nature and organisation of religious ideas and the scale and structure of religious organisations. This project will build on an existing Networks project funded by the British Academy. The Networks project involves three conferences (at Cambridge University, the University of Vermont, and Emory University) focused on a critical evaluation of Whitehouse’s theory of ‘modes of religiosity’ by leading scholars in the following subject areas: anthropology, history of religion/archaeology, and cognitive science. Since its inception, interest in the Networks project has grown rapidly, opening up a series of unique opportunities for substantial further research and publishing. In addition to completing his work for the original Networks project, which will include co-editing three volumes of essays based on conference proceedings, Whitehouse will use the research readership to: assume a leading role in the construction of three very substantial databases; carry out a major programme of new psychological research, write one single-authored volume and write one-third of a multi-authored volume; further disseminate the project’s findings by means of journal articles and lectures; assume primary responsibility for the co-ordination and administration of the enlarged project as a whole.
Dr Lucia Zedner
Reader in Criminal Justice, University of Oxford, and Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Oxford
Security and Justice: An Enquiry into the Normative Issues Raised by Changes in the Governance of Crime
The challenges posed to criminal justice by changes in the governance of crime, under the broad rubric ‘the pursuit of security’ will form the focus of Dr Zedner’s research. These changes include the rise of risk assessment, prudential strategies, crime prevention, community safety initiatives, and, above all, the rapid growth of the private security industry.
Her research will consider the changes entailed by the pursuit of security and their ethical implications. What is meant by security in different jurisdictions and legal cultures? What differences arise in the organisation, practices, technologies, and goals of security? What are the ethical, political and social issues raised by the pursuit of security, particularly where private and quasi-private agencies are involved? What is on offer when security stands as the justification for public policy or private venture, to whom, and at what cost (not least to trust, privacy rights, and individual freedom)? Is it possible to regulate the pursuit of security so as to ensure fair, accountable, and inclusive provision of protection? Do existing legislsative controls and regulatory mechanisms suffice or are new forms of regulation required and, if so, based upon what principles? And finally, what are the implications of the changes here described for existing penal theory and criminal justice values?
Professor T Besley, FBA
Professor of Economics, London School of Economics
The Architecture of Government: A Study in Comparative Political Economy
This research develops theoretical and empirical analyses relevant to the design of governmental institutions. It brings together work in political economy and normative public economics. The objective of the work is provide a framework for appraising piece-meal institutional reforms and their impact on economic policy making. Examples include the role of decentralization, direct democracy, and the choice of electoral systems. It will draw on empirical evidence from a number of countries including the United States, the UK and India.
Dr C M Davis
Lecturer in Russian and East European Political Economy, University of Oxford and Fellow, Wolfson College
Economic Influences on Health Crises in the USSR and Russia, 1965-2000
Most countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe experienced increases in illnesses, deterioration in medical care, and worsening of mortality during the initial decade of economic transition. Christopher Davis will carry out research on the interactions between health and economics in these countries, with a focus on Russia. The topics to be studied include: the influences of economic factors on health crises and on reforms of medical systems, the effectiveness of medical care in the health production process, the causes of and trends in inequalities in health, and poverty-related health problems. The new research will build upon two decades of work in this field. The main output of the Readership will be a book on the economics of health in the USSR and Russia during 1965-2005. The findings should be of interest both to scholars and to health policy makers in transition countries and in international organisations.
Professor Yr Athro J Hines
Professor of Medieval Archaeology, School of History and Archaeology, Cardiff University
Athro, Astudiaethau'r Oesoedd Canol, Ysgol Hanes ac Archaeoleg, Prifysgol Ceardydd
The Cultural History of Anglo-Saxon England: An Interdisciplinary Study
Professor Hines aims to draw on the strengthening interest in interdisciplinary historical studies to write a comprehensive, and reflexive, history of the first six centuries of an English culture. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in understanding the potential of such disciplines of philology, literary studies, history and archaeology. Particular importance will be attached to integrating textual and linguistic information with the full range of archaeological evidence, a significant amount of which is either not yet published, or recorded in the form of so-called 'grey' literature. The period will be approached in a thematic rather than a narrative manner, following a sequence of topics from the environmental and economic, through social, political and ecclesiastical history, to art, language, literature and ideology. This ordering does not presuppose environmental or material determination of cultural history but rather is intended to facilitate a critical evaluation of such a view. Even the validity of concepts such as the Anglo-Saxons, an Anglo-Saxon Period, and an Anglo-Saxon Culture with a unitary history will be explicitly assessed. This project is designed to produce a substantial book that will provide an accessible interpretative account of this period while also being of sufficient scope to serve as a scholarly reference work. The ambition is not only to provide a comprehensive account of the specific topics, but also to make a major contribution to the continuing debate over an agenda for future interdisciplinary work in the Humanities.
Professor D W Hopkins
Professor of English Literature, University of Bristol
The Poems of John Dryden, Vols 5-6: Poems, 1696-1700
Professor Hopkins's principal research project during his tenure of the Readership will be to work on Vols. 5 and 6 of the Longman Annotated English Poets edition of The Poems of John Dryden, which he is currently co-editing with Professor Paul Hammond of the University of Leeds. The Longman Dryden(of which four volumes have already appeared) is a scholarly undertaking of major proportions, and comprises the fullest edition ever prepared of the complete non-dramatic verse of the most celebrated English poet of the later seventeenth century, presented in chronological order of its appearance in the public domain. Texts are newly edited from the primary sources, and presented in modernized spelling and punctuation. Extensive on-the-page annotation (including a full headnote to each item) provides full information on the publication, sources, meaning, and contexts of each poem.
Dryden's work is often densely allusive to contemporary events and personalities, and his work abounds in allusions and echoes - sometimes obvious, sometimes much less so - of his poet- and dramatist-predecessors. Though the political allusions in Dryden's later work are less obviously dense than in his writings of the 1660s, 70s, and 80s, there is a consistent strain of subtle Jacobite allusion beneath its surface. In his later work, moreover, Dryden engaged extensively, for the first time, with the medieval writers Chaucer and Boccaccio, as well as with classical poets (Homer, Ovid, Virgil) in whose verse he had long been steeped. The Longman annotation will enable the reader to identify Dryden's allusions to his contemporary world, and to explore the complex processes in which Dryden engaged while composing his classical and medieval translations, by charting his numerous departures from, and creative reworkings of, his source-texts, and by documenting his use of seventeenth-century scholarship and of the work of numerous translator-predecessors.
The Longman Dryden illuminates the poet's distinctive use of language more fully than in any previous edition. Much information available in the OED and other sources, such as the English Dialect Dictionary and various contemporary glossaries, has been underused by previous editors. But the Longman editors are also able to make use of the resources of such archives as Chadwyck-Healey'sLiterature on Line for the further of Dryden's linguistic meanings and extensive literary echoes (including self-echoes).
During his tenure of the Research Readership, Professor Hopkins hopes to advance (and, if possible, complete) work on his remaining contributions to the edition. He is also engaged, as co-editor (with Dr Stuart Gillespie of the University of Glasgow) and contributor, in work on Volume 3 (1660-1790) of the forthcoming Oxford History of Literary Translation in English, and on a facsimile edition of Jacob Tonson's Miscellany Poems (1684-1709).
Professor A S Knight
Professor of the History of Latin America and Fellow of St Antony's College, and Director, Latin American Centre, Oxford University
Cardenismo: State and Society in Mexico in the 1930s
Building on his previous work on the Mexican revolution (1910-20), Professor Alan Knight will write a major study of the 1930s in Mexico, based on original sources, and focusing on the administration of President Lazaro Cardenas (1934-40) and the 'Cardenista' project. This involves analysis of: the domestic and international context; the dynamics of the 'institutional' revolution; relations between state and society; and the impact of the major reforms - agrarian, labour, educational - of the Cardenista project. The ensuing book will address the questions: was Cardenismo the culmination of the Mexican Revolution and, if so, what sort of revolution was it?
Professor P Magdalino
Professor of Byzantine History, University of St Andrews
L'orthodoxie des Astrologues; and The Culture of the Future in Byzantium, c.500-1354
Anxiety and speculation about the future are a basic part of the human condition, and the assertion or attribution of foreknowledge confers advantage and status in human relations. Pre-modern civilization privileged the prediction of future things by supernatural inspiration and revelation, but it also made use of 'primitive', mechanical forms of divination, as well as 'scientific' conjecture based on recorded experience and the observation of natural phenomena, above all the movements of the heavenly bodies. Indeed, the boundaries between these categories were often fluid, and it makes sense to study them as a single culture of the future. My project is to study this culture in Byzantium, the successor civilization of the ancient world which adhered most faithfully to the traditions of Greco-Roman antiquity.
The project involves, firstly, the completion of a book on the place of astrology in Byzantine learned society from c.600 to 1204. The book charts the attempt to justify astrology in terms acceptable to Orthodox Christianity, and explores the apparent paradox that astrology received greater official recognition in medieval Byzantium than it had in the more sophisticated and diverse culture of late antiquity. At the same time, it considers why astrology, along with a range of related scientific activity, never 'took off' in Byzantium to the same extent as in Islam or, eventually, in the medieval West. The explanation I propose is that Byzantium, despite precedents, opportunities and incentives, never wholeheartedly embraced the key principle that made astrology compatible with monotheism, namely that the natural universe shows the image of God, and must be studied to reveal the mind of its Creator. I argue that this principle suffered because it became identified with Iconoclasm, and 'science' thus fell behind rhetorical 'humanism' in the ninthth-c. revival of learning, which was definitive for future priorities. The very success of astrology in the Islamic and, later, the Latin worlds only increased its unacceptability to the Byzantine Church;. A twelfth-century attempt to win official recognition for it completely backfired, producing an uncompromising reaction, which, together with the sack of Constantinople in 1204, effectively removed astrology and astronomy from the Byzantine intellectual scene for a century, at the very time when Greek and Arabic learning was becoming fully assimilated in the West.
The second part of the project is to undertake a more general survey the culture of the future in Byzantium, c.500-1350. This will look at astrology along with the other kinds of divination, prediction and chronological projection which are attested in Byzantine sources. They include the various 'magical' methods of divination by natural phenomena which were proscribed by the Church, as well as oneiromancy, oracle literature and the prophecies attributed to holy men. More central to the survey, however, will be the whole question of Byzantine eschatology and apocalypticism - anything remotely related to speculation about the end of the world and the events leading up to it, notably the reign of the Last Emperor and his immediate predecessors. The study of Byzantine Endzeitvorstellung has advanced considerably in recent years. The time is ripe for a new synthesis, and there is still much pioneer interpretation to be done. My study aims to provide both, by exploring the following issues:
- The official attitude of church and state, as expressed in normative theory and recorded in historical practice. The proscription of astrology and divination has been well studied, but there is still room for comment on the gap between condemnation in principle and toleration in practice, and no comment has yet been offered on the almost total absence of any overt prohibition of oracles, apocalypses, and speculation on the dating of the End.
- The relationships between the various 'genres' of predictive literature: apocalypses, oracles, horoscopes, saintly prophecies, computistic treatises.
- The sharing, transmission, and adaptation of methods and motifs between Byzantium, Islam and the West; the continuing Jewish input, and the association of eschatological literature with anti-Jewish polemic; the importance of Sicily and Southern Italy in the genesis and transmission of prophetic literature.
- The function of prophecy - to know the future, to legitimise or subvert the status quo, to present an agenda, or simply to provide a narrative device?
- The prosopography of the experts, insofar as this can be determined, and the relationship between their predictive expertise and their other r?es and interests.
- The dynamics of supply and demand, production and reception, circulation, recycling and updating; the relationship between the written texts, almost invariably pseudonymous or anonymous, and the oral prophecies credited to holy men, even when they clearly derive from a textual model.
- The rewriting of history, especially of world chronology, in order to reschedule the End of Time.
Dr F Moltmann
Reader in the Department of Philosophy, University of Stirling
Unity in Conflict: Political Transitions of the Left in Modern France
During the readership, Dr Moltmann will investigate the way natural language makes reference to abstract and derived objects, such as properties, propositions, facts, events, and collections. Expressions involving such objects in natural language have often been misunderstood by philosophers because of an insufficient linguistic understanding and by linguists because of too narrow philosophical presuppositions. This project concerns itself with the various philosophical issues concerning abstract and derived objects while making systematic use of linguistic research. It will involve a systematic linguistic investigation of expressions or constructions involving derived or abstract objects as well as an exploration of the philosophical ramifications of their linguistic analyses, taking into account contemporary as well as historical perspectives in metaphysics and philosophical logic. The research will culminate in a book about reference to abstract and derived objects.
Dr E C Norton
Reader in Medieval Art and Architecture, University of York
The St William Window in York Minster and the Cult of St William of York
The St William Window in York Minster is one of the most remarkable medieval stained glass windows in Europe. It is currently undergoing a major restoration programme, which provides unique opportunities for study. It has already been possible to solve a problem which has baffled scholars for the last century and a half, namely to work out the original arrangement and iconography of the complete cycle of 95 narrative scenes. The aim of this project is to publish these new discoveries as a book which presents colour photographs of all the panels alongside translations of the Latin sources on which the narrative is based. An introduction will elucidate the historical and art-historical context and significance of the window. Dr Norton also proposes to prepare a series of public lectures (for subsequent publication) on the Cult of St William, to coincide with the 850th anniversary of the death of St William in 2004.
Professor T Nunes
Professor of Psychology, Oxford Brookes University
Understanding Mathematics Underachievement: New Analyses of the Relation between Arithmetic and Conceptual Knowledge
International comparisons reveal that an unexpectedly high proportion of English youngsters underachieve in mathematics. Their educational and professional development can be severely limited by this underachievement. Currently available assessments do not provide the detailed information needed for a conceptually sound analysis of the problem, either at the individual level or as a national issue. In collaboration with colleagues in England and other countries, Professor Nunes has collected data on a new series of assessments that allows for separate investigation of performance in arithmetic and knowledge of mathematical concepts and can thus provide the necessary information. The assessments were designed considering youngsters' informal knowledge of mathematics (described in her book, Street Mathematics, School Mathematics, CUP) and the need to transform this everyday knowledge into scientific, formal knowledge for the successful learning of mathematics in school. The project considers themes already recognised as central to the teaching of mathematics in British schools and also brings under focus children's conceptual difficulties that may be at the root of mathematics underachievement but remain unexplored in our schools. The project will draw on existing datasets collected with the support of the ESRC, the Nuffield Foundation, and the longitudinal study of children in the county of Avon (ALSPAC) and will add to the information available for understanding mathematics underachievement.
Dr A D B Poole
Reader in English and Comparative Literature, University of Cambridge
The witness is an important figure within tragic drama from the anonymous messengers of Greek tragedy onwards, and for the audience outside the frame of the fiction the act of witnessing is essential to performance. These figures and acts persist when tragedy migrates from drama into other forms of representation, into written narrative, both fictional and historical, and works of visual art, both still and moving. The developments of visual technology over the last hundred and fifty years have seemed to raise new questions about what it means to witness the pain of others, especially questions about complicity. One way of addressing them is to look back to the great paradigms of dramatic fiction in the genre traditionally deputed to their embodiment, and then to consider the predicament of the witness in and of tragedy alongside concepts, practices and debates in adjacent domains, including those of theology, jurisprudence and medical science. Dr Poole will give close consideration to examples from drama, narrative and the visual arts from various historical contexts including ancient Greece, early modern England and France, and the increasingly globalized conditions under which 'modern tragedy' has been produced and experienced. He will seek to establish some of the things that witnessing tragedy once meant, and what they can contribute to our understanding of tragedy now.
Dr P Thompson
University Lecturer in the Faculty of Modern History, University of Oxford and Non-Stipendiary Fellow of St Cross College
Colonial Virginia in an Atlantic World
Virginia, founded in 1607, was the first permanent British colony in America. It soon became the largest and most valuable of Britain's mainland possessions. It was the first colony to establish a representative assembly but equally was the first to tie its economic fortunes to slave labour. Dr. Thompson's study uses Bacon's Rebellion - a short-lived internal civil war in 1676 involving unstable coalitions of planters, white servants and slaves -- to situate the development of Virginia within the broader history of the Atlantic World. Virginia's "image problem" - a nagging sense, skilfully exploited by Nathaniel Bacon, that there was no good reason for its existence - was directly attributable to British contempt for a "colony founded on smoke"; a contempt symbolised by the policy of dumping in it the "offscourings of the realm." In consequence Virginians sought a creole identity, one that allowed them to express that sense of being both British and Virginian which their position within an Atlantic economy made inescapable. Analysing Virginian society from this perspective sheds fresh light on American history as a whole by resisting the teleological impulse to search for an authentically American identity or an explanation for American independence in the colonial period. The results of Dr. Thompson's research will be disseminated via a book under contract with OUP and also through Dr. Thompson's participation in conference, web-sites and public events tied to celebrations of the 400th anniversary of the founding of Virginia.
Professor P Williamson
Professor of History, University of Durham
The New Oxford History of England: Britain 1918-1951
The scale of the New Oxford History of England, with the range of themes it allows and its demand for coherence, provides an opportunity for original conceptualisation of the formative period of modern British experience - from the prolonged depression and anxieties of the 1920s and 1930s, though the transformations of the second world war to the establishment of economic management and universal welfare. The core theme of the research will be the development of the state, which in these years shaped political, economic, social, and intellectual life as never before. The perspectives will nevertheless be different to those of orthodox policy, party and institutional histories. The emphasis will be moved towards political culture and public values, both as the fundamental materials of political and intellectual debate and as the forms of community and communication between the disparate sections of the population and those aspiring to lead them. Ideas and values neglected in much of the existing historical literature, particularly constitutionalism and religion, will be given proper weight. More recent areas of study, such as gender and national identity, will be more firmly assimilated. The aim will also be to produce a genuine history of Britain, given that this period produced an unprecedented (and in retrospect short-lived) integration of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland into the British state and a British identity.
Professor C J Withers
Professor of Historical Geography, University of Edinburgh
Geographies of the Enlightenment
Professor Withers' project aims to advance new understandings of the Enlightenment as a geographical phenomenon. Historians and others have debated the 'what', the 'when' and the 'why' of the Enlightenment, yet little attention has been paid to the 'where' of the Enlightenment. The research proposed will consider the geographies of the Enlightenment through attention to three related themes. The first will explore Enlightenment ideas as locally-situated, nationally-expressed or as ideas above national context. The second will consider the effect of new geographical knowledge upon Enlightenment thinking. The third theme will consider the geographical movement of Enlightenment ideas and explore how new knowledges travelled, how they were translated and how and where they were differently acted upon. The intended monograph is thus concerned not only to map the sites of the Enlightenment's production but also to discern geographies of movement and of reception within the Enlightenment's public sphere.
Dr P T Baines
Senior Lecturer in English, University of Liverpool
Edmund Curll: A Bio-Bibliographical Study
Dr Baines’ project offers a case-study in early eighteenth-century book production and literary culture. The bookseller Edmund Curll fed a new public appetite for scandal, secret history and biographical anecdote; attacked, imprisoned, pilloried, sued and even poisoned for his publications, Curll seemed to thrive on controversy. A permanent thorn in the side of Alexander Pope and other literary figures of the time, Curll had a formative influence on their sense of poetic mission and acted as a continual reminder of those aspects of the literary imagination they would seek to filter out of public view. Curll was a publishing phenomenon whose activities have not been seriously examined since 1927. The immensely enhanced access scholars now enjoy to early printed books and archives means that it is now possible to examine the case of Curll from a research-based, non-partisan perspective and thus reimagine the publishing world which produced Augustan culture. This project will include a complete bibliography of Curll's publications, a full investigation of his publishing career, and an analysis of his legal (and illegal) battles with Pope.
Professor K Barber
Professor of African Cultural Anthropology, University of Birmingham
Propositions for an Anthropology of African Texts
The goal of Professor Barber’s project is to contribute to the development of a comparative anthropology of African texts by exploring a set of general theoretical and methodological propositions through selected in-depth case studies. Verbal texts have been comparatively neglected in mainstream Africanist anthropology, yet in many African cultures they are central facts of life, affording unparalleled insights into people's values, modes of explanation, and concepts of the person and society. Using her own past research into oral and written African (especially Yorjbá) texts as a springboard, Professor Barber will explore published and unpublished data on other African cultural sites in order to show that textuality needs to be conceptualised as a historical field rather than as a collection of isolated texts or genres. The resulting book will be intended to open the way to future collaborative and comparative studies in the anthropology of texts.
Professor David Bates (Marc Fitch Research Reader)
Edwards Professor of Medieval History, University of Glasgow
William the Conqueror
Professor Bates intends to use the award of the Readership to write up and complete his monograph on William the Conqueror for the Yale University Press English Monarchs series. This will be the first scholarly treatment of William's life and times since D C Douglas’ original book in the series was published in 1964, and will draw on Professor Bates’ extensive research and past publications on the period, most notably his edition of all William’s post-1066 English, Norman and French charters (published in 1998). The book is urgently needed since new editions of every major source for William's life and times have appeared since 1964, providing a revolution in our knowledge of these sources. Alongside this revolution there have been major historiographical shifts on almost every aspect of the reign.
Professor M Elliott
Professor of Modern History and Director of the Institute of Irish Studies, University of Liverpool
Robert Emmet: The Making of a Legend
Robert Emmet led a rebellion in Ireland in 1803, which failed, but which had considerable ramifications in England (Despard’s Conspiracy) and France (where military aid was being sought) and America (where relatives and supporters of Emmet were launching an attack on the pro-British stance of the then government). Most importantly, however, was the legacy to the future, for Robert Emmet became the dominant influence in the emerging idea of the ‘glorious failure’ and ‘blood sacrifice’, which has pervaded Irish republican nationalism to recent times. Simultaneously his life and the manner of his death was inspiring the Romantic movement in Europe. Professor Elliott proposes to research a history of Emmet’s political life from his student days at Trinity College, Dublin in the 1790s to his execution in 1803, and to examine his legacy, particularly how he, above all the other United Irishmen, came to occupy pride of place in the myth of the noble failure.
Dr S R Epstein
Reader in Economic History, The London School of Economics
Industrial Organisation and Technological Development in Europe, 1300–1750
Historians have recently emphasised the great organisational variety of eighteenth and nineteenth-century European manufacture and have underlined its responsiveness to changing patterns of production and demand. They have, however, paid less attention to the origins and evolution of industrial forms in earlier centuries. Dr Epstein’s project will investigate the nature and causes of alternative industrial organisations, their regional variation, and their consequences for the production and dissemination of technical knowledge between the late thirteenth and eighteenth centuries. It will focus on whether different industrial structures defined alternative paths of technological innovation; on alternative means for acquiring and diffusing tacit technical knowledge (through apprenticeship, migration and patenting); on the political economy of technological conservatism; and on industrial districts as ‘technological regimes’ where industrial skills could be pooled and cross-fertilised. The project adopts a comparative perspective and pays particular attention to the effects of the broader political and institutional framework. It aims to contribute to debates on the technological and institutional determinants of pre-modern economic performance.
Dr D Feldman (2002–03)
Senior Lecturer in History, Birkbeck College, University of London
Migrants, Immigrants and Welfare from the Old Poor Law to the Welfare State
Dr Feldman’s project considers the changing definitions and treatment of ‘strangers’ under successive welfare regimes in England and Wales from the mid-seventeenth century to the present. Its starting point is a realisation of the structural similarity between the problems created for welfare systems by internal migrants where welfare has been organised locally (17–19C), and by immigrants in 20C when, increasingly, welfare has been organised on a national basis. This project will chart and characterise the changing definitions and treatment of outsiders, and it will go on to consider the causes and consequences of these changes. It will contribute to current policy debates about immigration, immigrants and asylum-seekers, but, primarily, the project will be a ground-breaking contribution to historical scholarship.
Professor T J Hatton
Professor of Economics, University of Essex
International Migration and the UK Economy since 1950
Professor Hatton proposes a programme of research to examine the causes and economic effects of international migration to and from Britain in the last 50 years. The study will bring together existing data sources from Britain and overseas to produce a deeper analysis of underlying causes and effects than has previously been possible. It will use economic methodology and quantitative analysis to address some of the issues that emerged from Professor Hatton’s own recent survey of the interplay of economic forces and policy on postwar migration. The analysis will focus on three major themes:
- What have been the main economic forces influencing the volume and composition of migration to and from Britain in the long run and the short run?
- What have been the effects of British immigration policy on the numbers and types of immigrants to Britain and how have such effects changed over time?
- What are the economic effects of changing patterns of migration? Among these are the effects on industry, on the welfare state and on immigrants themselves.
Dr S K Hazareesingh
CUF Lecturer, Fellow, and Tutor in Politics, Balliol College, Oxford
Unity in Conflict: Political Transitions of the Left in Modern France
Dr Hazareesingh will use the award of the Readership to work towards completing the research and writing of a book on the French Left for Yale University Press. In this book, he hopes to make a significant and original contribution, both to an intellectual understanding of the Left (and especially the relationship between republicanism and the ideologies of the Left), and to an assessment of its continuing impact on French politics. He shall argue that the Left can be viewed as an aggregate of three distinct subcultures (the Jacobin, the progressive and the libertarian), and will explore these ideological constructs both in their historical elaborations and through specific themes such as citizenship, regionalism and feminism. His ambition with this research is to produce a book which will define the political and intellectual contours of the Left, and reappraise its overall contribution to French politics and political culture in the 20th and early 21st centuries.
Professor M F Heath
Professor of Greek Language and Literature, University of Leeds
Menander of Laodicea: A Third-Century Rhetor in his Cultural and Social Context
The aim of Professor Heath’s research is to complete his ongoing research project on the history of rhetoric in late antiquity. Menander of Laodicea (‘Menander Rhetor’) is the late ancient rhetorician most familiar to modern classicists because of the two treatises on epideictic oratory bearing his name. The bulk of his attested output, however, was concerned with the practice and theory of forensic and deliberative oratory, and the overwhelming majority of ancient testimonia and fragments relate to this aspect of his work. This observation invites a reassessment of the significance of Menander himself, and of late ancient rhetoric in general: the widespread perception of late antique oratory as primarily epideictic sits uncomfortably with the predominantly forensic and deliberative orientation of Menander and other rhetoricians. The main output envisaged is a book that will:
- demonstrate that the commentary on Demosthenes by Menander of Laodicea was a major source for the extant scholia to Demosthenes;
- examine the implications of the consequent re-assessment of Menander as a specialist in forensic and deliberative (rather than epideictic) oratory for a general understanding of late ancient rhetoric and oratory;
- relate Menander’s work to other evidence for the development of rhetorical theory and classroom practice in late antiquity;
- consider the resulting picture of late ancient rhetorical theory and classroom practice in relation to a broader cultural and social context.
Professor S Mithen
Professor of Early Prehistory, University of Reading
A New Study of the ‘Pre-Pottery Neolithic A’ of the Near East
Professor Mithen will use the Readership to study the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) period in the Near East. This period was identified by Kathleen Kenyon at Jericho during the 1950s and is now recognised as the critical period of transition from mobile hunter-gathering lifestyles to those of farming, which were in turn a prelude to the emergence of early civilisations. During the Readership, Professor Mithen will undertake a comprehensive study of the PPNA period, integrating both old and new data sets in the context of new methodological and theoretical approaches, building on the results of a fieldwork project jointly undertaken with Dr Finlayson (Director, Council for British Research in the Levant, Amman) which identified a new PPNA settlement (WF16). Preparation of the final excavation report for this site, and of the survey in the environs of the settlement will be one element of this major study.
Dr S C Ogilvie
Reader in Economic History, University of Cambridge
The Economic World of the Bohemian Serf, 1550–1750
Rural development is widely seen as essential for economic growth, yet explanations of its historical sources have focussed on characteristics of ‘successful’ Western Europe, with little comparative research to establish their absence in ‘failed’ economies east of the Elbe. Dr Ogilvie’s research will redirect attention to Eastern Europe, hitherto largely portrayed in terms of stereotypes about ‘peasant society’ and ‘serfdom’. The award will enable Dr Ogilvie to collect archival material in the Czech Republic, to incorporate qualitative sources into an existing quantitative database, and to replace current received truth about Eastern European serfdom with a rigorous, microeconomic analysis of the documented workings of a specific serf society. Findings will be disseminated through a book comparing Bohemia with other European peasant economies and discussing implications for rural development. The results will also be incorporated into courses that will stimulate the interest of students in the social, cultural and institutional dimensions of economic history.
Dr D Scott
University Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Cambridge
A Study of Plato’s Meno
In his dailogue, the Meno, Plato raised fundamental questions in some of the central areas of philosophy: ethics, politics, education and epistemology. Not surprisingly, this work is widely acknowledged as one of his most important. There has, however, been no philosophical monograph on it in English for twenty years. Dr Scott’s research proposes to fill this gap through a book to be published by CUP. The dialogue is too often broken into segments which are then studied more in relation to other works of Plato than they are to each other. By contrast, Dr Scott will attempt to do justice to the depth and complexity of the individual arguments, while bringing out their interconnections. Given the enormous interest in Plato’s philosophy and in this dialogue in particular, such a book should be of great benefit to philosophers and classicists, whether engaged in teaching or research.
Dr J Scott (2001–02)
Fellow and Director of Studies in History, Downing College, Cambridge
It is one legacy of Restoration forgetting that there is still no general account of English republicanism. Outstanding work on republican ideology all takes this to be exemplified by the work of James Harrington. One need is to understand republican thought as a whole, before relating Harrington to it. Another is to understand it in its political as well as intellectual contexts, not least because most republican writers were participants in the republican experiment in practice. One result will be the discovery that Harrington was highly atypical. Another, restored to its religious as well as humanist context, will be a new account of classical republicanism in England. This hinged, not upon political language, or constitutional form, but moral philosophy in the context of an attempted radical reformation of manners. Dr Scott’s proposed book will have implications both for the methodology of intellectual history and for a general understanding of the collapse of seventeenth century English monarchy and its consequences.
Dr A S Sinclair
Reader in Modern Spanish Literature, University of Cambridge
Centres of Exchange: Organs of Cultural Diffusion in Spain, 1900–1936
There is a pressing case for the re-appraisal of knowledge and understanding of cultural and intellectual life in Spain between 1900 and 1936. Our view of Spain in the early decades of the 20th century has been retrospectively simplified, resulting in part from the cultural and intellectual shut-down in the Franco regime. A cultural amnesia has been produced, so that knowledge of the vitality and variety of cultural and intellectual life in early 20th century Spain has been lost. Dr Sinclair’s project will re-appraise Spanish cultural and intellectual life in this period, using a detailed study of the role of centres of exchange. Dr Sinclair intends to examine the ways in which cultural exchange between Spain and Europe, and between Spain and Latin America was facilitated by such centres. In addition, she will consider what the existence of such organs of diffusion implied for Spanish public life. The centres are: (i) institutions (academic and cultural), (ii) periodicals and newspapers, (iii) publishing houses, and (iv) individuals. The long-term aim is to set up a research group, which would have the task of a collective detailed exploration of the field, and which might eventually extend its chronological range to the end of the Franco regime.
Dr C Stebbings
Reader in Modern Legal History, University of Exeter
Statutory Tribunals: Legal Foundations and Evolution in Nineteenth Century England
The objective of Dr Stebbings’ research project is a comprehensive elucidation of the legal historical foundations of a major contemporary public institution, the statutory tribunal. This specialist and largely lay body was adopted in the nineteenth century as the principal method of resolving disputes which arose between the state and the subject, or between subject and subject, in the context of the public and semi-public organisations which an increasingly sophisticated and complex government necessarily engendered. Its legal nature and procedures, and its place in the machinery of justice, were debated and refined throughout the Victorian period. In examining this process, the project aims to explain the interaction between legal constraints, social and economic demand and political expediency which gave rise to this form of dispute resolution. It also aims to assess the impact of the tribunal in the context of popular and professional attitudes to access to justice in the nineteenth century.
Dr S Bobzien
CUF Lecturer and Fellow in Philosophy, Queen’s College, Oxford
The Development of Propositional Logic in Antiquity
Dr Susanne Bobzien proposes to write a book on the development of propositional logic in antiquity, re-evaluating the known evidence and drawing on fragments and texts which have as yet been neither translated nor exploited for the history of propositional logic. The ’discovery’ of propositional logic is one of the two great achievements in ancient logic. Surviving passages on ancient propositional logic date from the 3rd Century BC to the 6th Century AD. This will be the first such study to be written, and builds on a considerable body of work previously carried out by Dr Bobzien.
Professor E H Cooper
Titular Professor in English, University College, Oxford
The purpose of Professor Helen Cooper’s research is to produce a book on romance conventions from the first emergence of the genre in French and Anglo-Norman in the twelfth century down to the death of Shakespeare: a continuous story, since romances not only constituted the largest and most sophisticated body of secular fiction in the Middle Ages, but in black-letter prints were familiar to Elizabethans of all social levels. This embedded culture was reworked for the theatre, for Reformation propaganda, and for the ’writing of England’. The varying interpretations of the same texts over several centuries, and the combination of precise imitations of motif with differences of understanding and usage, offer a revealing and sensitive measure of historical and cultural change.
Dr H S A Fox
Senior Lecturer in English Local History, University of Leicester
Rural Settlements in Medieval Devon, 500–1500: A Study in Social History
Dr Harold Fox proposes to use the Readership to address a large number of key issues relating to medieval settlement and society, producing results which should be of interest and use to a wide range of medieval and landscape historians and also to the general public. These results will be embodied in a monograph which will address the two-way relationship between places and the people living in them. Society was arranged on the ground in a way which reflected social relations: thus a labourer’s cottage near the farm door probably indicates dependent or ‘tied’ labour. There is also a reverse relationship because settlement pattern influenced social relations: thus a dispersed pattern of settlement may have contributed to weak lordship. Another key feature of this work will be its long timespan.
Dr D Gambetta, FBA
University Reader in Sociology, All Souls College, Oxford
Signalling and Mimicking Individual and Group Identity
Dr Diego Gambetta intends to use the award of the Readership to complete a major book on the deceptive mimicry of identity signals (eg impersonating, pretending, passing off). This project represents a whole new development of Dr Gambetta’s previous work on trust, and identifies a phenomenon that, while ubiquitous, is merely anecdotally acknowledged, and it provides a unified theoretical treatment of it. The overall aim consists of uncovering the ways in which identity signalling succeeds in conveying credible information about the unobservable qualities of agents despite the threat posed by mimics who aim to exploit the reputation without the qualities. Theoretically, it draws on a range of disciplines, such as game theory, biology and semiotics, to establish the conditions that make signals credible. Empirically, it provides a classification of mimicry types and the analysis of some selected cases of ‘semiotic warfare’ between mimics and their victims.
Professor C S Gamble, FBA
Professor of Archaeology, University of Southampton
The Palaeolithic Foundations of Europe
The primary aim of Professor Clive Gamble’s research will be the study of the intensification of hunter-gatherer societies in Palaeolithic Europe from 18,000 to 8,000 years ago. This crucial ten thousand years in human prehistory will be compared with that of the Near East where similar intensification led to agriculture and very different societies. A secondary aim is to bring prehistoric hunters and gatherers ‘in from the cold’ and into explanations of change in later prehistory. This will be achieved by undertaking new research in selected regions of Europe and the Near East in order to present a synthesis of the period. Attention will be paid to the process of social and economic intensification and the different trajectories of change. These issues will be addressed through the study of selected sites and compared at a regional scale.
Professor P L Harris, FBA
Professor of Developmental Psychology, St John’s College, Oxford
Testimony and Imagination
Research on cognitive development implies that young children are stubborn autodidacts: they resist the testimony of adults and rely on their own limited, first-hand observation. There are good reasons for thinking that this conception of cognitive development is inadequate. First, children adopt conclusions that they cannot establish first-hand (eg that the earth is round; that people think with their brain). Second, they have a powerful, disciplined imagination that helps them to elaborate upon and interpret claims that they learn about via testimony. Professor Harris proposes to undertake a two-part research project to examine such learning: (1) a study of children’s understanding in a domain where they must rely on adult testimony, namely the human life-cycle (including their own) of birth, growth and death; and (2) an evaluation of the epistemological status that children grant to testimony, as revealed in their spontaneous articulation of key conceptual distinctions.
Professor T A Jackson
Professor of Modern Irish History, The Queen’s University of Belfast
Irish Unionism, 1800–2000
Professor Alvin Jackson proposes to use the Readership to complement his work on early Unionism with a study of the politics, culture and society of the movement in the Stormont years, marrying this new work to existing research with a view to creating a single, archive-based and wide-ranging history of the Irish Unionist movement from its origins to the present day. This work would fill a gap with a single, research-based volume devoted to the institutional, ideological and cultural history of Irish Unionism.
Professor D S King
Professor of Politics, St John’s College, Oxford
The Idea of America in Britain
The purpose of Professor Desmond King’s research project is to undertake and complete a major interpretative study of the influence of America in Britain through an examination of a set of case studies drawn from politics and public policy. The case studies are: political relations, as represented in presidential-prime ministerial links; economic relations, examined through the period of British economic dependence on the dollar; and public policies in the area of race relations and welfare.
Professor J Local
Professor of Phonetics and Linguistics, University of York
Phonetics of Talk-in-Interaction: A Study of the Interactional Functioning of Phonetic Detail in Everyday Talk
Professor John Local intends to use the Readership to work on a book, ‘Phonetics and Meaning in Talk-in-Interaction’. Linguists have a wealth of knowledge about the way speech sounds are produced and combined together to make words and longer utterances. They frequently work, however, on the basis of constructed data or speech produced in experimental settings. In consequence, there is only the most rudimentary information on the ways in which ordinary people use the phonetic resources of language in natural everyday talk. This proposal seeks to remedy this by investigating talk in natural conversation and elaborating an interactional approach to phonetics, bringing together techniques of Conversation Analysis and parametric phonetic analysis to offer insights into this complex area. The book will synthesise published and unpublished work, and incorporate new results from the detailed analysis of interactional data that will be carried out in the course of the award.
Professor K Morgan
Professor of History, Brunel University
The Dynamics of the British Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century
The award of the Readership will enable Professor Kenneth Morgan to complete the research and writing for a book on the British Slave Trade in the 18th Century. This will be primarily concerned with the business history of the Guinea traffic on all legs of the triangular trade, dealing with the merchants and sea captains involved in the trade; the commercial activities carried out on the west African coast; the middle passage; the disposal of slaves in the Americas, and the profits accruing to Britain from the slave trade. This will be the first fully researched study of its kind to appear for many years. It will include new material, especially on the international competition for slaves in Africa, slave sales in North America and the Caribbean, and the rise of Liverpool as a leading slave port.
Dr M Mundy
Senior Lecturer in Anthropology, LSE
Property, Family and Administration: An Historical Anthropology of Islamic Jurisprudence and the Modern Ottoman State
Dr Martha Mundy’s project develops an innovative analysis of private property relations in the modern Ottoman state of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman represents an important comparative case: while its reforms of administration and property law resemble those of other imperial powers, the state – at once Asiatic and European ’ acted within Islamic-Imperial legal traditions quite different from those that informed European colonial rule at this time. Property relations entail quite different moments or fields: legal doctrine, political administration, and ‘rights’ generated in production. This study thus combines textual interpretation of the genealogies of Ottoman legal doctrine, archival analysis of the political administration of law, and ethnographic reconstruction drawn from government records and oral history in villages of one province of the Empire. The analysis aims not to press these readings into a single mould but to explore their articulation as expressive of distinct moments of property.
Mrs C M Roueché
Reader in Classical and Byzantine Greek, King’s College London
Corpus of Inscriptions from Aphrodisias in Caria
Mrs Charlotte Roueché proposes to use the Readership to prepare for publication a full corpus of the inscriptions of Aphrodisias in Caria, most of which have been recorded over the past 30 years by Joyce Reynolds, FBA and herself. Mrs Roueché intends to use new electronic means to exploit an unusually rich dossier more fully than has ever been done before – not only by using extensive illustration, but also by expressing the relationships of the texts to one another and to their physical location. In this project, Mrs Roueché will be able to draw on expertise and resources at King’s College London and at the Institute for Classical Studies, London. The intention is to set a new standard for the publication of inscriptions from a particular site. Mrs Roueché will also work with Denis Feissel (Paris) to make a corpus of the large mass of Late Antique inscriptions from Ephesos, with the approval and collaboration of the Austrian excavators.
Dr A R G Swift
CUF Lecturer and Tutorial Fellow in Politics, Balliol College, Oxford
The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage: Sociological Mechanisms and their Normative Assessment
The award of the Readership will enable Dr Adam Swift to develop his previous interdisciplinary work on social stratification and distributive justice, bringing to fruition research aimed at clarifying the normative issues raised by the social processes that generate the reproduction of social inequality across generations. Attention will focus on three themes: (i) the different ways in which advantage is conceptualised by theorists of distributive justice and sociologists of class and stratification; (ii) the morality of educational choice, with special reference to the justification of choices that contribute to inequalities that parents themselves regard as unfair; and (iii) the various sociological mechanisms by which relative advantage (and disadvantage) is transmitted from parents to children, and the moral issues – to do with equality of opportunity and the proper scope of partiality – that they raise.
Professor H Woudhuysen
Professor of English, University College London
Shakespeare and the Book
Professor Woudhuysen’s research on ‘Shakespeare and the Book’ will examine bibliographical and theoretical thinking during the last fifty years about Shakespeare’s works and the editing of their texts. Based on a fresh critical reading of the relevant books and articles, it will incorporate new research into manuscripts, printing and publishing during the period. This research will fill a gap for a new work which examines the editing of Shakespeare’s plays and poems in the light of developments in bibliography, the history of the book and literary theory during the half century which has elapsed since the last work to attempt such a survey: F P Wilson’s Shakespeare and the New Bibliography first published in 1945.
Professor J. Bell FBA
Professor of Public and Comparative Law, University of Leeds
European Legal Cultures
Professor John Bell will work on a study of the nature of legal cultures in Europe, a topic of major significance to European integration and the understanding of legal systems. His research will be disseminated principally through two books. The first will be on 'French Law and Legal Cultures', exploring the hypothesis that there is not a single French legal culture, but several: among judges, professionals and academics. The second strand will be to produce a book mapping out the influences shaping European judicial cultures.
Dr M.N.A. Bockmuehl
University Lecturer, Faculty of Divinity, University of Cambridge
Simon Peter and the Origin of the Gentile Christian Mission
Dr Markus Bockmuehl intends to use the Readership to plan and implement a substantial historical study on Simon Peter's role in the formation of the early Church and its theology, as developed in the uneasy symbiosis of primarily Jewish Christianity and the emerging Gentile churches around the Mediterranean. The results will be disseminated in a monograph which will take account of important recent archaeological and socio-historical studies of both Galilee and the Jewish and early Christian communities in Rome; recent studies of Hellenistic Judaism, and the benefits of research on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Professor J.P. Dancy
Professor of Philosophy, University of Reading
Professor Jonathan Dancy will work on completing a substantial investigation and defence of the moral theory which he has been developing since 1980, which is known as particularism. Moral particularism is the view that moral thought and judgement do not involve any appeal to moral principles, putting it at variance with almost every established view in moral theory. This will be a full-scale and authoritative statement of his position, with defence against extant criticisms.
Professor P. Hulme
Professor of Literature, University of Essex
Caribbean Fictions of Indigeneity
Professor Peter Hulme intends to work on 'Caribbean Fictions of Indigeneity', the third (and final) stage of a long engagement with the large body of material - scientific, ethnographic and fictional - on which our understanding of the history of the indigenous Caribbean depends. The first stage was published in 1986 as Colonial Encounters: Europe and the Native Caribbean, 1492-1797, and the second stage is due to appear in 1999 as Visiting the Caribs. The new project will focus on various pieces of fiction, mostly historical novels, that claim to represent the indigenous cultures of the Caribbean.
Professor D.N. Livingstone FBA
Professor of Geography and Intellectual History, The Queen's University of Belfast
Spaces of Science
Professor David Livingstone aims to develop what might be called 'an historical geography of science'. Scientific knowledge has been produced, disseminated, and received in a diverse array of different sites, spaces, regions and situations. The primary objective of this work is to elucidate systematically how such fundamentally geographical factors have conditioned the scientific enterprise. By taking the spatial components of science seriously, the hope is to demonstrate some of the ways in which a geographical methodology may supplement social and historical studies of science and, at the same time, to show how science - traditionally presented as a universal enterprise devoid of parochial particulars - has in fact been 'located' in a variety of telling ways. The first fruits of this work will be a volume of a general nature on 'The Spaces of Science', with a variety of detailed case studies to follow in future years.
Professor D.J. Mattingly
Professor of Roman Archaeology, University of Leicester
Living in the Desert: The Garamantes of Fezzan (Libya)
Professor David John Mattingly is currently directing a new programme of archaeological fieldwork on the Garamantian heartlands in Libya and, simultaneously, is working on a definitive publication of the results of earlier archaeological study of the Garamantes by Charles Daniels which produced dramatic evidence for their settlement and cemeteries. The Research Readership will enable Professor Mattingly to concentrate his energies on the completion of the new fieldwork, editing two volumes of reports on the Daniels' survey and excavations, and the writing of a synthetic monograph on the Garamantes, the foremost tribe of the Libyan Sahara in Classical antiquity.
Dr R.A. McCabe
Fellow and Tutor in English, Merton College, and Titular Reader in English, University of Oxford
'Monstrous Regiment': The Relationship between Female Sovereignty and Colonial Policy in the Work of Edmund Spenser
Dr Richard McCabe intends to analyse the works of Edmund Spenser within the dual, but interactive, contexts of imperial aspiration and female 'regiment' and to provide a reinterpretation of The Faerie Queene as a (frustrated) colonial romance more akin to Camoens' Lusiads in its political and racial outlook than to the epic verse of Ariosto or Tasso. This would develop work already done by Dr McCabe in related areas of Spenser studies into a coherent analysis of the entire canon designed to demonstrate the centrality of Spenser's colonial policy, and its eventual disintegration, to every aspect of his language, imagery, mythology and structure.
Dr M.S. Morgan
Reader in History of Economics, The London School of Economics
Models and their Making in Economics
Dr Mary S. Morgan draws attention to the fact that economics is now a discipline which relies on the method of mathematical modelling and economists believe the method is a powerful one for understanding the world. Models dominate both scientific and policy economics and so play a very powerful role in the practice of economics: they mediate between theory and data and between economic science and the world. But neither the methodology of how such modelling works in economics, nor the history of how it emerged has been much researched. Her project will treat models as mediating instruments and use case studies to explore this economic modelling tradition.
Professor R.G. Osborne
Fellow and Tutor in Ancient History, Corpus Christi College and titular Professor of Ancient History, University of Oxford
The Transformation of Athenian Society, c. 520 ? c. 460 BC
Professor Robin Osborne expects to be able to create a detailed picture of the way in which Athenian society was transformed in the period c. 520?c. 460 BC and a new understanding of the relationship between political and social history in the decades in which Athenian democracy was created. Ancient texts reveal changes in Athenian society and its values , but such texts are too scant to delineate such changes fully. Professor Osborne will use the enormous corpus of Athenian painted pottery from these years to get a better measure of the social transformation. Results will be achieved by analysing and correlating changes in pot shapes, and in iconographic and stylistic choices, and by reading this evidence against what is known from textual sources and other aspects of archaeology.
Professor M. Vaughan
Professor of Commonwealth Studies, University of Oxford and Fellow of Nuffield College
African Identities in the Era of the Slave Trade: East Central Africa
Professor Megan Vaughan is the author of works such as The Story of an African Famine: Gender and Famine in Twentieth Century Malawi (CUP, 1987) and Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition and Agricultural Change in Northern Zambia, 1890?1990 (Heinemann and James Currey, 1994), which have contributed to a new understanding of the history of colonialism in East Central Africa. She now wishes to explore in greater depth the nature of, and changes to African societies and social identities in this region in the era of the slave trade. In particular, this work will explore how the historical memory of this period may be encoded in non-narrative forms (initiation rituals and spirit possession practices, for example). The aim is to re-vitalise the study of pre-colonial history in this region through a fresh perspective on this important period, to contribute to the debate on the nature and extent of changes wrought by colonialism and to provide new theoretical insights into questions of history, memory and identity in Africa.
Dr N.C. Vincent
Reader in Medieval History, Christ Church College, Canterbury
An Edition of the Charters of King Henry II
Dr Nicholas Vincent intends to work on a project to fill a significant gap in our understanding of the political and legal history of the twelfth century. As ruler of England, Normandy, Anjou and Aquitaine, Henry II exerted a unique influence over Anglo-French history, besides being credited with a role as chief architect of the English common law. The Readership will enable the completion and publication of a completed edition of all of Henry's charters (representing a collection twice the extent of the Anglo-Norman Regesta Regum, published in the fifty years after 1910).
Professor A. Whiten
Professor of Evolutionary and Developmental Psychology, University of St Andrews
Nature, Function and Early Development of 'Theory of Mind'
Professor Andrew Whiten will study our capacity for everyday 'mindreading' ? the psychological process through which we routinely interpret and predict others' actions by recognising 'states of mind'. Two different but interlinked approaches will be taken. The first is primarily a philosophical and conceptual exercise, developed from an interdisciplinary perspective, to analyse the very nature of what mindreading can be, given that we are not telepathists and must read minds through observables. The second, complementary approach is an observational analysis of the earliest manifestations and functions of mindreading in childhood. The two approaches will reinforce each other, together making a fundamental contribution on a topic with wide implications in the humanities and social sciences.
Professor R.E. Backhouse, History of Economics, (University of Birmingham)
Dr D.S.T. Clark, Early Modern History, (University of Wales, Swansea)
Professor C.J. Hookway, Philosophy, (University of Sheffield)
Professor H.N. Kennedy, Medieval History, (University of St Andrews)
Dr N.F. Kenny, French, (Churchill College, Cambridge)
Mr J.F. Kerrigan, English, (St John's College, Cambridge) (Marc Fitch Research Reader)
Professor D. Miller, Anthropology, (University College London)
Dr S.J. Schaffer, History of Science, (University of Cambridge)
Professor D. Whitehead, Classics, (Queen's University of Belfast)
Dr R.J.C. Young, English, (Wadham College, Oxford)
Dr T.C. Barnard, Early Modern History, (Hertford College, Oxford)
Dr P. Davidson, Russian, (School of Slavonic and East European Studies, London)
Professor L.D. Freedman, Politics, (King's College London)
Professor R.L.V. Hale, Philosophy, (University of Glasgow)
Professor T. Ingold, Social Anthropology, (University of Manchester)
Dr P.A. Johnson, Economic History, (London School of Economics)
Dr A. Warner, Linguistics, (University of York)
Dr H. Watanabe-O'Kelly, German, (Exeter College, Oxford)
Professor C.J. Wickham, Medieval History, (University of Birmingham)