The British Academy is pleased to announce the result of the 2006 competition for Research Leave Fellowships, Senior Research Fellowships and the Thank-Offering to Britain Fellowship. These awards were decided by the Academy in January 2006, and will be taken up by the award-holders from this autumn. 173 applicants submitted a total of 208 applications in the two competitions (the highest numbers since 1999). 134 applications were submitted for the Research Leave Fellowships scheme and 74 for the Senior Research Fellowships and Thank-Offering to Britain Fellowship. The Research Leave Fellowship scheme was the first of the Academy's Posts competitions to be funded under the Full Economic Costing regime. The costs submitted exceeded the Academy's expectations, and it was not possible to maintain the previous volume of award. The costs rose beyond the original model, not because the additions for estates and indirect costs were noticeably out of line with what had been forecast, but rather because the average salary costs of the best candidates were significantly higher than had been anticipated. The Committee noted that, by attracting 'star' academics, the funds available for the scheme were insufficient to sustain the number of awards expected. The Academy was able to fund just 7 Readerships, 7 Senior Research Fellowships (for which financial backing is generously provided by the Leverhulme Trust), and 1 Thank-Offering to Britain Fellowship (supported by the TOB Fund).
134 applications, 7awards
- Dr Simon Ditchfield
- Professor Danny Dorling
- Dr Nancy Edwards
- Professor John Jackson
- Dr Javed Majeed
- Professor Walter Mattli
- Professor Steve Smith
The projected outcome of this fellowship will be the volume Papacy and People: the making of Roman Catholicism as a world religion, 1500-1700 for the Oxford History of the Christian Church series (published by OUP). Central to the argument is the importance of understanding the reciprocal, dynamic nature of the relationship between Rome and its local churches; from Milan to Manila; Palermo to Paraguay. This entails a significant modification of such interpretative paradigms as 'confessionalisation' and categories such as 'social discipline', which need to be nuanced by reference to the capacity of peoples in both the New and Old worlds to appropriate Roman Catholicism as their own. Just as the papacy was not the only active agent, neither were the people merely subaltern, passive consumers. Drawing, in particular, on the history of liturgy and of the cult of saints, the study aims to furnish us with the means whereby we can better understand the protean forms taken by Roman Catholicism in the process of making itself this planet's first world religion.
Departmental web page: http://www.york.ac.uk/depts/hist/staff/ditchfie.shtml
This project begins with the premise that half a century ago society in the UK was tainted by Beveridge's five great evils of want, ignorance, idleness, squalor and disease. The research will consider the argument that our society is now better summarised as being characterised, on the down-side, by high levels of poverty in the midst of affluence, of educational segregation - especially in higher education, of widening inequality in the workplace, of the amassing of unproductive riches in housing, and of the growing importance of despair creating illness rather than disease. If this is the case then how and why did an era of social policy that began with the tackling of Beveridge's five evils end in such an uneven playing field of opportunity and outcome?
All five new faces of the social evils suggested above are clearly related and I believe a better understanding of the transformation of social inequality in the United Kingdom can be achieved by studying all five simultaneously. One route to achieving this is through exploring their related human geographies.
Web Link: http://www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/
The archaeology for Wales in the period c AD 400-1100 is still poorly understood and documentary evidence is sparse. Therefore the early medieval inscribed stones and stone sculpture, as the most prolific form of material evidence, are especially important. Despite some difficulties concerning close dating and chronology, we can use their context, form, ornament and inscriptions to open windows on larger research questions about this formative period of Welsh history. This material throws unique light on questions concerning conversion to Christianity, the identification of early church sites, their hierarchy and evolution, as well as changes in liturgy and belief. The inscriptions also provide the main source for study of the Welsh and Irish languages in post-Roman Wales and shed light on literacy and learning. It is also possible to identify local and regional sculptural groups and to contribute to debates concerning wealth and the role of patronage, changing cultural identities, the impact of Irish and Viking settlement in Wales, and the significance of Welsh cultural and artistic contacts with other parts of Britain and Ireland, especially around and across the Irish Sea, as well as with the Continent. Research on the Welsh material will also complement studies of sculpture elsewhere in Britain and Europe allowing comparisons and contrasts and contributing to broader debates.
This research will complete the 3 volume Corpus of Early Medieval Inscribed Stones and Stone Sculpture in Wales project. Volume III on north Wales will provide an introduction which will integrate analysis of the monuments in light of the above research questions, and a well illustrated analytical catalogue (with specialist contributions on geology, language and epigraphy). This publication will also be a significant tool for the future protection, conservation and display of the sculpture.
The debate in comparative law as to whether legal systems within the common law and civil law traditions are converging has led to a renewal of interest in comparative procedure and evidence. The thrust towards convergence has been at its strongest within Europe where the European Court of Human Rights has sought to fashion common standards of process and procedure across the two European legal traditions. But another recent global development has been the efforts made by the ad hoc criminal tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda and the International Criminal Court to fashion evidentiary standards that conform with international human rights standards. Traditionally, the law of evidence is associated with the 'adversarial' common law tradition but these international developments are leading to an opportunity for a shared set of evidentiary norms to be developed across common law and civil law jurisdictions. The project aims to examine whether a genuinely cosmopolitan and coherent law of evidence is being developed across the common law and civil law divide. International developments such as the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and the Human Rights Committee of United Nations and the rules and standards developed by the international criminal institutions will be examined to determine whether there has been an internationalisation of evidence law. A central question will be to determine whether this jurisprudence represents a compromise on the part of judges who hail from different traditions or the extent to which it represents a genuinely transformative attempt to evolve new concepts and methods of proof. As well as considering the international jurisprudence, a mix of domestic jurisdictions from both legal traditions will be chosen to consider what impact this jurisprudence has had on domestic jurisprudence.
Web link: www.law.qub.ac.uk/staff/jjackson.html
Most (perhaps all) studies of postcolonialism and translation in English literary studies concentrate exclusively on English language texts and how they reflect the polyglot societies of the colonised and post-colonial world. This study will break from that exclusive focus. Its aim is to examine the interaction between English, Urdu and Persian in British India in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It focuses on a range of texts in these three languages, from travelogues and ethnographies to literary treatises and novels. The study considers how, why, and when translation between these languages reinforced as well as challenged relationships of power in colonial South Asia. The study also considers the Linguistic Survey of India (c.1900-1927) in the context of these processes of translation. I will examine how British and Indian translators interacted with their source texts, and how they constructed their cultural identities in relation to them. By focussing on translation between these languages, I hope to define fresh perspectives on the cultural relationships of British India, and in particular, the cultural and political relations between South Asian Islam and Britain.
Regulation, once largely a domestic public matter, has tremendously grown in complexity and scope with the onset of globalization. This transformation of rule-making processes and governance structures, which is affecting practically all areas of human activity, has emerged as one of the most central and fascinating topics in world politics. The overarching goal of my project is to better understand the nature of the emerging global economic governance through careful analyses of the regulatory trends and institutional changes in key areas of global governance. In other words, the project seeks to better understand the nature of what has been called the globalized regulatory state by disaggregating this state into key constitutive parts and reflecting on differences across these parts in structure, process, and outcome. While the main substantive focus of my analysis will be on global food and transport (sea, air, and road) regulation, I will also consider a range of other regulatory issue-areas. The ultimate objective of this research is not simply to generate more case-studies on global regulation (however well-informed) but to go the extra analytical mile and seek to improve our theoretical understanding of striking differences and/or similarities in regulatory structure, process, and outcome across issue-areas.
Using material that has only recently become available in archives in the Russian Federation and the People's Republic of China, the project compares the efforts of Communist regimes in the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China to reform popular culture along lines of science and rationality. It takes the official category of 'superstition' as the optic through which to examine the conflict between the ostensibly 'scientific' worldview of the party-state and the essentially magical worldview of millions of the population. It asks how far increased penetration of society by the state led to the erosion of 'traditional' beliefs and practices and how far it created conditions in which these were reactivated to meet new challenges. In particular, it examines how traumatic social and economic change galvanised a politics of the supernatural, rooted in religion, folklore and magic. The analysis of the attempts to reform popular culture focuses on efforts to extirpate 'superstition' in life-cycle rituals around birth, marriage and death; in the seasonal and liturgical calendar; in folk medicine; and in farming practices; and efforts to suppress the activities of magical specialists, such as witches, wise women, spirit mediums and daoist masters. The project uses this struggle to analyse similarities and differences between the Soviet and Chinese Communist regimes, exploring how similar ideologies and institutions operated in vastly different cultural contexts. Finally, it seeks to shed light on the ways in which the political cultures of Stalinism and Maoism came to absorb values, norms and orientations from the popular cultures they purported to despise.
74 applications, 7 awards
- Dr Elizabeth Austin
- Dr Giovanni Capoccia
- Professor Stephen Guest
- Dr Helena Hamerow
- Dr Clare Harris
- Professor Alexandra Walsham
- Professor Clair Wills
Emotional intelligence (EI) is a relatively new construct which allows individual differences in the capability to understand and use emotions to be measured and studied. Although the naming of EI implies that it is a form of intelligence, it is currently not clear whether it actually has the relevant attributes (e.g. positive associations with other, more well-established, forms of intelligence; evidence for a biological underpinning). The objective of the research project is to assess the intelligence properties of EI within a framework which draws on the information-processing approach to psychometric intelligence. In this area there are well-established findings that link psychometric intelligence to performance on basic information-processing tasks, and there is preliminary evidence that a similar link may also exist for EI. A series of experimental studies will be performed in which new tasks involving the processing of emotion-related information will be devised and tested, and the associations of performance on these tasks with performance on non emotion-related tasks, intelligence tests and existing EI measures will be examined. These studies will allow the development of a better understanding of how well EI fits into the psychometric intelligence framework.
The award will be used to analyze causes and consequences of political repression to control extremism in contemporary Western Europe. The project includes two parts. The first part will provide a general picture of trends, determinants, and consequences of political repression in Western Europe. The data used for this analysis are all laws (1,100 in total) regulating personal, civil and political freedoms in sixteen Western European democracies since 1920, as well as the relevant judicial rulings. These will be analyzed both in coded, quantifiable form, and in more qualitative form to allow better interpretation of the legal and judicial texts. The second part of the project will reconstruct through detailed case studies the political and behavioral mechanisms underpinning the patterns highlighted by the broader analysis carried out in the first part. In case studies of recent clashes between the democratic establishment and extremist movements in France, Spain and Germany, the focus of the research will be on what drives the behavior of politicians, judges, and bureaucrats in deciding and implementing repression or shying away from it, in situations of both policy stability and change.
My project will concentrate on the view that law is to be identified focally with justice. The only legal theory coming close to this claim is that of the early-20th century German jurist Radbruch and, to some extent, his contemporary disciple Alexy. Radbruch famously proposed that when abuse of justice reaches a particular threshold a judge is entitled to declare grossly unjust laws as legally invalid. This theory has never been fully developed. My project will work towards the idea that justice will not only contribute to the content of law but it will also justify and distribute appropriate decision-making powers to legislatures and judges. This account should make coherent the idea that our judgements of justice will often require reference to past decisions of a political community even when they are unjust. The general thesis should develop through an examination of Dworkin's theory. (i) Legality seems to promote not much more than stability - and perhaps, in consequence, limited autonomy - and any significant moral force it appears to have is simply a reflection of integrity. (ii) Integrity uses an idea of equality that is unclear. It is not just equality of outcomes - allocating equal outcomes under the law - because that idea is subject to the more fundamental principle of equality of respect. (iii) Integrity seems much better accounted for as a theory of the second best, gaining its force from justice. (iv) More convincing explanations for judicial decision-making allow for direct appeals to justice (Bundy v. Lloyd's Bank is one of a number of excellent examples) or for taking account of past decisions as 'experiments in justice', (bringing out what is already apparent in the force of 'persuasive' precedents of other jurisdictions), or to a right to reasonable expectations being met (often called the 'principle of certainty'). (v) The idea that a judge might lie, where his private convictions about justice diverge from his judgement that integrity requires, is not satisfactory. The project if successful will explain the connection between our understanding of legal argument and the moral legitimacy of law and, incidentally, make good sense of the moral worth of legal education.
The Fellowship will enable me to undertake the first comprehensive study of the rural settlements of Anglo-Saxon England. Such a study is now possible thanks to a new generation of large-scale excavations that have recently been published or whose publication is imminent. In addition, a great deal of information on these and other settlements is contained in the unpublished 'grey literature' of archaeological units and English Heritage. The evidence yielded by these sources provides new insights into a number of key questions, including: to what degree can we see continuity from late Romano-British settlements? How large were Anglo-Saxon settlements, how were they organized and how did this change through time (e.g. to what extent do the origins of the planned medieval village of tofts and crofts lie in the Anglo-Saxon period)? What was the impact of towns and monasteries on the economy and society of rural producers? Have the scale and efficiency of agrarian and craft production in the later Saxon period been underestimated? What does the changing relationship between settlements and their cemeteries reveal about wider developments in Anglo-Saxon society? The book will form a companion volume to my book on Early Medieval Settlements (2002) which dealt with contemporary settlements in northwest mainland Europe.
Between the mid 19th century and the present day, Western approaches to Tibetan art have been transformed. Where they once stood within an ethnographic project to document and represent Tibet as a potentially colonisable part of the British Empire, Tibetan objects have been reconfigured as art and now play a key role in personalised narratives of spirituality and psychological improvement. Dr. Harris's research suggests that this shift can be examined through the collections, documentation and displays of British museums (in particular) and the wider context of cultural politics. It is argued that museums (and their contents) have been agents in the process by which certain ideas about Tibet have achieved their current ubiquity in transnational mediascapes (Appadurai 1996). By combining anthropological and art historical methods, Dr. Harris's research is also designed to investigate the repercussions of this history for contemporary Tibetans. In an era when museums have become prime sites for the negotiation and contestation of identities, Tibetans have begun to use them as a format to gain ascendancy in the global competition for cultural recognition. Dr. Harris will conduct ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in order to analyse the effectiveness (or otherwise) of the museum model and to consider the extent to which externally produced representations of Tibet continue to impinge upon them. Finally, the research moves beyond the confines of the museum to acknowledge the emergence of new forms of art produced by Tibetans and in which the experience of direct and indirect forms of colonialism are articulated.
Historians of the Long Reformation in the British Isles have devoted much attention to analysing the impact which the advent, entrenchment and evolution of Protestantism had upon the ecclesiastical structures and artefacts that were the most tangible reminders of the medieval Catholic past. There has been surprisingly little scrutiny, however, of the way in which the complex religious changes of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries left their imprint upon the wider physical landscape beyond the churchyard wall and outside the precincts of priories, cathedrals and convents. This research project, which will culminate in a substantial monograph, represents an attempt to redress this area of historiographical neglect. It considers how the complex and protracted religious changes of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries affected perceptions of, and practices associated with trees, woods, springs, caves, rocky outcrops, mountain peaks, prehistoric monuments and other distinctive topographical features of England, Scotland, and Wales between 1500 and 1700. Drawing evidence from a wide range of printed and archival sources, it examines the role played by both Protestantism and resurgent Catholicism in perpetuating, transforming, and recreating traditions and rituals linked with the landscape in this period and seeks to assess and refine enduring claims about the 'disenchantment' or desacralisation of the world. The research will also illuminate how beliefs, customs and legends connected with the natural but also partly man-made environment were shaped by other intellectual and cultural developments, including the rise of empirical science and natural philosophy, the professionalisation of medicine and diversification of rival sources of healing, the growth of antiquarianism, and the influence of the artistic and architectural Renaissance. A further objective is to reanimate interest in the evolution of the discipline of 'folklore' and to stimulate critical discussion about how it can fruitfully be used by historians.
In 1949 independent Ireland declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth. The legal copper-fastening of the new state coincided with a rate of increase in emigration so severe that by 1953 the phrase 'the Vanishing Irish' had been coined to highlight the problem. During the 1950s over 400,000 people left independent Ireland, nearly a sixth of the total population recorded in 1951, and vastly more of the working population. The majority left for work in Britain. The economic stagnation of the country compared to the booming economies of Britain and northern Europe, brought home the failure of independent Ireland to thrive. For writers and intellectuals depopulation was linked to cultural and intellectual isolation, and above all the literary censorship, which - it was held - forced writers to emigrate.
This project analyses the cultural history of this period in Ireland, looking at cultural responses to emigration, to the failure of small-farm Ireland, to the collapse of the Gaeltacht areas, and to a renewed 'provincial' relationship between Dublin and metropolitan cultural centres such as London.
The aim of the project is to identify and analyse the literary forms and styles which developed, in both Irish and English, in order to express this cultural condition; to interrogate the literature of 'stagnation and depopulation' in the context of non-literary responses to emigration, including popular literature, journalism, and parliamentary debates on emigration; to assess the accuracy of descriptions of Dublin's literary culture as stagnant and moribund, and the effects on Irish literary and artistic circles of links with London and Belfast.
applications as SRF, 1 award
This project involves an interdisciplinary and theoretically informed engagement with the way that the contemporary fathers' rights movement has sought to engage with law reform processes. The aim is to bring to recent high-profile debates in this area in the UK a better understanding of the complexities of law and legal regulation, one informed by recent developments in doctrinal, theoretical and empirical legal scholarship as well as in social theory, gender studies and, in particular, the critical study of men and masculinities. In so doing it will enhance knowledge of the relationship between law and parenthood and produce clear and identifiable benefits for a range of Research Users including policy makers, professional bodies, pressure groups, government and the academy. The project embraces historical, theoretical and empirical elements, including interviews with activists, lawyers and relevant policy-makers. It also integrates a strong comparative element.